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Find, access and use information effectively: a step-by-step guide
Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017 URL: http://libguides.sun.ac.za/StepbyStep Print Guide RSS Updates

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APA Referencing Style and Examples

This section is based on:

  • Lourens, A. c2007. Scientific writing skills: Guidelines for writing theses and dissertations. Stellenbosch: SUN Press. [Examples used with permission from the author].
  • Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Maak sin van verwysings: Die Harvard-, APA- en Vancouver-metode en die voetnootstelsel. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch Universiteit Taalsentrum. [Voorbeelde met toestemming van die outeurs. Sien e-boeke A-Z lys en kliek onder M.].
  • Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Make sense of referencing: The Harvard, APA and Vancouver methods and footnote system. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University Language Centre. [Examples used with permission from the authors. See e-books A-Z list and click on M.].

Examples are arranged alphabetically according to publication type. Some duplication exists to cover varieties of terminologies, for example 'periodical' and 'journal'.

For the addition of examples that are not represented in this list (see, for example, areas marked with '?'), please contact Santie de Jongh (santiedj@sun.ac.za) with further examples to be added.

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A

 

Reference list In-text reference

Abstract

Lee, S.T. (1986). The semantics of advertising [Abstract]. Psychology Today, 19, 34-37.

(Lee, 1986).

Acts, Laws & Statutes (legislation)

Republic of South Africa. (2000). National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printer.

Note:
If this source is available electronically, work according to the guidelines for electronic referencing.

According to the National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000 (Republic of South Africa, 2000), young people are also entitled to be treated with respect and dignity.

Annual report

General Motors. (2002). 2001 Annual report. Detroit, MI: General motors.

Sales have doubled since the turn of the century (General Motors, 2002).

Archive material (Special collections)

Coates, Albert. (1946). The Boy David [Manuscript]. Albert Coates collection. PDV2. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University.

(Coates, 1946)

Article: Periodical - vol & number

Jawitz, J. (1995). Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 101–108. doi:10.xxxxxx

Note:

The title of the journal is italicised and not the title of the article.
When doi isn’t available use: Retrieved from http://full URL. No retrieval date is necessary.
The abbreviation “pp.” is not used in the reference list to indicate page numbers – the comma directly after the volume and issue numbers fulfils this function.

Higher education institutions admit students to tertiary study on the basis of their matriculation results, since these are seen as adequate indicators of academic success (Jawitz, 1995).

or:

 

 

Jawitz (1995) underwrites the decision of higher education institutions to admit students on the basis of their matriculation results, since it is seen as adequate indicators of academic success.

Article: Periodical, paginated by volume

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893–896.

Harlow (1983)

Article: Periodical - vol, number & month

Lee, S.T. (1986). The semantics of advertising. Psychology Today, 19(3), 34-37.

According to Lee (1968), the main objective of advertising is…

Article: Periodical, seasonal Lee, S.T. (1986). The semantics of advertising. Psychology Today, 19, 34-37.  
Article: Periodical - electronic database Petrić, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

Article: Periodical - Institutional Repository (post-print articles / off-prints) - with DOI Nell, I.A. 2011. Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1), 148-160. doi:10.5952/52-1-13 (no full-stop after DOI)
Note:
Do not cite Institutional Repository URL for articles. Cite original publication.

(Nell, 2011)

Article: Magazine, Popular

Cobo, L. 2001. Team songwriting: Boon or bane?, Billboard, 113(32), 1, 11 August.

Cobo (2001) emphasizes the history and nature of songwriting collaboration.

Article: Magazine, Popular - No author

The hot box. 2012. Billboard, 124(26), 29, 4 August.

Elton John has received his first No. 1 place in the U.K. Albums Chart (The hot box, 2012).
Article:
Newspaper - Author

Anthony, Elmarine. (2016, June 16) Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. Die Burger, p. 3.
Note:
The article in the titles of newspapers or magazines can be omitted.

Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.
If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5–B7).

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Anthony, 2016).

Anthony (2016) indicates that
penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres.

Article: Newspaper - No author

Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. (2016, June 16). Die Burger, p. 3.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê, 2016).

Note:

If the author of an article is unknown, the
Article: Newspaper - No author, no title

Die Burger. (2016, June 16) p. 3.

Note:

If the author and title are unknown, the source is listed under the title of the newspaper or magazine.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Die Burger, 2016).

 

Article: Newspaper (electronic)

Meryment, E. (2006, October 7). Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own. The Australian, Retrieved from http://www.dowjones.com/factiva/

Note:

Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs.

(Merryment, 2006)

or:

Merryment (2006) discusses the role of wine in ...

Atlas - editor

Rasmussen, C. (Ed). (2010). Zondervan atlas of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

(Rasmussen, 2010, Map 36)

Atlas - no editor RSA atlas. (1996). Rev. ed. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman.

As can be seen in the RSA atlas (1996, Map 36), ...

or:

As can be seen in the the Western Cape (RSA atlas, 1996, Map 36) the ...

Atlas: Author

Orr, D. M. (2000). The North Carolina atlas: Portrait for a new century. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

As can been seen in the North Carolina Atlas (Orr, 2000) the environment changes ...

 

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B

 

Reference list In-text reference

Bible (religious text)

Nelson, T. (ed.). (1994). Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Philadelphia: Pew Library.
Note:
For For your first citation, identify the version which you used.

These particular lines (Psalm 23:1-4 New King James Version) refer to God as the Shepherd.

Blog (Web log)

Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found. (2013, January 14). The History Blog [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/22791  (14.01.2013)

(Possible 9-foot model, 2013)

Blog (Web log) - author

Olivier, H. (2013, July 24). Klei-klank soundtrack 2011: Hannelore Olivier and Laura du Toit. Critical landscapes blog [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://criticallandscapesblog.wordpress.com/author/hanneloreoli4/ (14.01.2013)

(Olivier, 2013)

Book: One author

Weideman, A.J. (2003). Academic literacy: Prepare to learn. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

A thorough understanding of what is read is a prerequisite for good academic writing (Weideman, 2003).
Weideman (2003) claims that a thorough understanding of the text is a prerequisite for good writing.
Book: Two authors Bachman, L.F. & Palmer, A.S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reliability is one of the characteristics of a good test (Bachman & Palmer, 1996).
According to Bachman & Palmer (1996), reliability is one of the characteristics of a good test.
Book: More than two authors

Davies, A., Brown, A. , Elder, C. , Hill, K., Lumley, T. & McNamara, T. (1999). Dictionary of language testing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

For first reference in text:
Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts (Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill, Lumley & McNamara, 
1999).

 

 

For all subsequent references in text:
Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts (Davies et al., 1999).
 

 

or
 

 

For first reference in text:
Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill, Lumley and McNamara (1999) describe coherence as an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts
.
 

 

For all subsequent references in text:
Davies et al. (1999) describe coherence as an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts.
Book: No author

Advertising in the Western Cape. (1995). Cape Town: ABC Publishers.

This was apparently not the case before 1990 (Advertising in the Western Cape, 1995)

 

Advertising in the Western Cape (1995) stipulates that this was apparently not the case before 1990.
Book: Editor

Anderson, P.K. (Ed.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Renewable Energy. San Fransisco: Pegasus.

or

Anderson, P.K. (Red.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Renewable Energy. San Fransisco: Pegasus.
Note:
(Ed.) is the English abbreviation for editor. If your text is written in Afrikaans, you will write (Red.) instead of (Ed.).

Hydro energy is one example of renewable energy (Anderson, 1993).

Anderson (1993) lists hydro energy as an example of renewable energy.

Book: Editor (Revised copy)

Barnard, C. revised by Brewer, C. (Ed.). 1993. The second life: Memoirs. Cape Town: Vlaeberg.

(Barnard 1993)

Book: Corporate body

Independent Television Commission. (1988). The ITC code of advertising standards and practice. London.

(Independent Television Commission, 1988)

Book: Chapter, under editor

Blanton, L.L. (1994). Discourse, artefacts and the ozarks: Understanding academic literacy, in V. Zamel & R. Spack (Eds.). Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures (pp. 235-319), New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Note:

Use the appropriate abbreviation for one or more editors (English and Afrikaans examples):

One editor - (Ed.)  - (Red.)

More than one editor - (Eds.) - (Reds.)

The main implication is that texts should require interaction with the focus on negotiation of meaning within specific contexts (Blanton, 1994).

According to Blanton (1994), the main implication is that tests should require interaction with the focus on negotiation of meaning within specific contexts.

Book: Translated work

Sergardi, L. (1994). The Satires. (R.E. Pepin, Trans.). New York: P. Lang.

(Sergardi, trans. 1994)

Book: Work in progress

Schroeder, L.B. (2003). The evolution of women. Unpublished manuscript. Morris: University of Minnesota Morris.

 

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication:

 

Schroeder, L.B. (2003). The evolution of women. Manuscript submitted for publication. Morris: University of Minnesota Morris.

(Schroeder, 2003)

Book review

Gouws, A. (2000). Review of whole language: What's the difference? [Review of the book Making justice our project: Teachers working toward critical whole language practice, by C. Edelsky]. Literator, 44(2), 225-227.

(Gouws, 2000)

Brief, policy

Dickson, Barney, Bertzky, Monika, Christophersen, Tim, Epple, Cordula, , Kapos, Valerie, Narloch, Ulf & Trumper, Kate. (2012). REDD+ beyond carbon: Supporting decisions on safeguards and multiple benefits. UN-REDD Programme policy brief,(2) [Online]. Retrieved from: http://www.unredd.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=8533&Itemid=53 (12.06.2015)

For first reference in text:

According to Dickson et al. (2012) ...

For all subsequent references in text: Dickson et al. (2012)

Brief, security

Osinowo, Adeniyi Adejimi. (2015). Combating piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. Africa Security Brief, 30, February [Online]. Retrieved from: http://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ASB-30-Feb-2015-Combating-Piracy-in-GoG.pdf  (12.06.2015)

Osinowo (2015) ...

Brochure (Pamphlet)

Le May, G.H.L. (1967). South Africa: The future. Cape Town: C.A. Algar.

Note:

If non routine information is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets immediately after the title:

Le May, G.H.L. (1967). South Africa: The future [Brochure]. Cape Town, South Africa: C.A. Algar.

(Le May, 1967)

Brochure (Pamphlet): No author

Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika. (1989). Pretoria: Buro vir Inligting.

(Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika, 1989)

 

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C


 

Reference list In-text reference

Catalogue

Alborough, A. (2002). Collective works (catalogue). Stellenbosch: Sasol Art Museum.

(Alborough, 2002)

CD-ROM

Odendal, F.F. & Gouws, R.H. (2000). Elektroniese Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal [CD-ROM]. Available: Perskor [2007, September 20].
Note:
If the information on the author(s) is not available, the title is listed first.

Odendal and Gouws (2000) define pride as an excessive feeling of self-worth or an overestimation of the self.

Class lectures

Van Dyk, T.J. (2013). Akademiese Geletterdheid EOT 151-154. Class lecture (Akademiese taalvaardigheid 151-154). Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

A consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed (Van Dyk, 2013).

Class notes

Bosman, K., Gilson, G., Swart, S., Van Dyk, T.J. & Van Rensburg, C. (2005). Akademiese Geletterdheid EOT 151-154. Class notes (Akademiese taalvaardigheid 151-154). Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

A consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed (Bosman et al., 2005).

 

 

From a study by Bosman et al. (2005) it appears that a consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed.

Class notes (electronic)

Johnson, K. (2007). Psychology 114 Class notes. Stellenbosch University. [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/webstudies  [2007, May 3].

Johnson (2007) is of the opinion that the basic principles of bahaviourism is still relevant.

Commentaries, religious (Bible)

Dunn, J.D.G. (1988). Word Biblical commentary: Romans 1-8. vol. 38a. Dallas: Word Books.

According to Dunn (1998) ...

Commentaries, religious, chapter (Bible)

George, T. (1994). History: No other gospel (1:1-2:21). In George, T. The new American commentary: Galatians. vol. 30. Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers. 67-202.

According to George (1994) ...

Commentaries, religious, chapter (Bible)

Craddock, F.B. (1998). Hebrews 10:19-39, Life in response to this ministry of Christ. In Keck, L.E. et al. The new interpreter's Bible in twelve volumes, vol. XII. Nashville: Abingdon Press. 67-200.

According to Craddock (1998) ...

Computer game

Core Design. (1996). Tomb Raider (PC Game). Wimbledon: Eidos Interactive.

(Core Design, 1996)

Computer software

Finale (computer software). 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.finalemusic.com [2012, August 14]

(Finale, 2012)
Concert programmes (programme notes) Oosthuizen, M. (2014). Vaalvalk [Programme notes]. Arnold van Wyk Juvenilia. Endler Hall, Stellenbosch. 20 September.

(Oosthuizen 2014)

Conference paper - published Coetzee, M. & Van Dyk, T.J. (2006). Engineers on the foreground: An integral approach to language acquisition, in Engineering education for sustainable development. Pretoria: University of Pretoria: 215-222.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Academic language proficiency develops over a period of time (Coetzee & Van Dyk, 2006).

In their study Coetzee and Van Dyk (2006) confirm that academic language proficiency develops over a period of time.

Conference paper - unpublished Coetzee, M. & Van Dyk, T.J. (2006). Engineers on the foreground: An integral approach to language acquisition. Unpublished paper delivered at the Third African Regional Conference on Engineering Education. 26 September, Pretoria.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Academic language proficiency develops over a period of time (Coetzee & Van Dyk, 2006).

Coetzee and Van Dyk (2006) found that academic language proficiency develops over a period of time.

Conference paper (electronic) Basole, R.C. (2007). The emergence of the mobile enterprise: A value-driven perspective, in N. Archer, K. Hassanein & Y. Yuan (eds.). ICMB 2007 conference proceedings. 9-11 July, Ontario, Canada. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society  [Electronic]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ez.sun.ac.za/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=4278534 [2013, May 24].

Mobile technology is more widely used in business (Basole, 2007).

Conference paper (electronic) - publication unknown Basole, R.C. (2007). The emergence of the mobile enterprise: A value-driven perspective. Sixth International Conference on Mobile Technologies (ICMB 2007). [S.n.: s.l.] [Electronic]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ez.sun.ac.za/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4278584 [2013, May 24].

Mobile technology is more widely used in business (Basole, 2007).

Correspondence: Letter, fax, memo, etc. Vermeulen, L. (2007). Correspondence. 23 September, Stellenbosch.

In 2004, only 47% of the enrolled first-year students completed their studies in the prescribed period (Vermeulen, 2007).

Correspondence: E-mail Joyce, M. (2001). Pattern recognition, E-mail to M. Otto [Online], 13 Jan. Available E-mail: mjoyce@sun.ac.za.

(Joyce, 2001)

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