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Find, access and use information effectively: a step-by-step guide
Last Updated: Jun 17, 2017 URL: http://libguides.sun.ac.za/StepbyStep Print Guide RSS Updates

Bibliographic elements Print Page
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Referencing Styles: Note about section: Referencing styles, Harvard, Other referencing styles

The 'Referencing Styles' section provides the following:

  • Layout of the bibliographic elements (see below)
  • Examples of referencing styles: Harvard, APA, Vancouver and the footnote system (see drop-down menus)

These examples were taken from and based on the following sources:

Lourens, A. c2007. Scientific writing skills: Guidelines for writing theses and dissertations. Stellenbosch: SUN Press. [Examples used with permission from the author]. See referencing sources.

Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Make sense of referencing: The Harvard, APA and Vancouver methods and the footnote system. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University Language Centre. [Examples used with permission from the authors]. See referencing sources.

The Harvard section contains an extensive list of examples, whereas the section 'Other Referencing Sources', points to sources for these styles.

 

Elements of Harvard referencing: Book

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Click on the following links for explanations of the Harvard referencing elements:

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Weideman, A.J. 2003. Academic literacy: Prepare to learn. 2nd edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
 

Elements of Harvard referencing: Chapter in book

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Click on the following links for explanations of the Harvard referencing elements:

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of chapter: Subtitle of chapter, in Editors of book (eds). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page numbers of chapter.

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of chapter: Subtitle of chapter, in Editors of book (eds). Title of book: Subtitle of book Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page numbers of chapter.
Blanton, L.L. 1994. Discourse, artefacts and the ozarks: Understanding academic literacy, in V. Zamel & R. Sparks (eds). Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures Revised edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 235-319.


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Elements of Harvard referencing: Article in periodical

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Click on the following links for explanations of the Harvard referencing elements:

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of articleTitle of periodical, Issue (vol):page numbers of article.

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume (Issue): Page numbers of article.
Jawitz.J. 1995. Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 1 (9): 101-108.

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Elements of Harvard referencing: Law Report

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Party Names Year of publication Volume number (if available) Law Report Abbreviation Start page (Court Abbreviation, if available)
Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD)
Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue [1993] 2 All SA 496
 

Elements of Harvard referencing: Web site / Electronic source

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Click on the following links for explanations of the Harvard referencing elements:

Author (if available), Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle. [Medium] Available: URL. [Access date].

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle
[Medium] Available: URL [Access date].
Norback, J.S. 2001. Shoptalk 101: Integrating workplace communication into undergraduate engineering curricula
[Online] http://www.orms-today.org/orms-8-01/norback.htm. [2005, August 31].


Electronic sources: Credibility

Evaluate information on Internet.
Consult the Internet Directory of Published Writers at http://www.writers.net to obtain more information on an author.

Name of author or editor (if available)
Title of page/article
Title of web page (look on site’s home page)
Type of medium (e.g. electronic journal, online)
Date which the website was updated, or copyright date
Full Internet address (URL), e.g. http://www. . .
Date on which website was accessed (access date)


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Referencing elements: Author

Two authors

Norback, J.S. & Lwellyn, D.C.

Use the ampersand (&) in the reference list and when the names of the authors are not part of the sentence:

Example: '. . .' (Norback & Lwellyn, 2001). This was contested in the same year (Norback & Lwellyn, 2001).

When the authors' names form part of the sentence, use 'and':

Example: According to Norback and Lwellyn (2001:18), ...

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More than two authors

When reference is made to three or more authors, all authors should be indicated in the first instance of mention (in text). Thereafter, use "et al.".

Example: First reference in text: Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill, Lumley and McNamara (1999:25) describe ...
Subseqent references in text: Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency (Davies et al., 1999:25).
Davies et al. (1999:25) describe coherence ...

For more than five authors, list the first five authors followed by et al. Use the same format in the reference list.

If there are, for example six authors, list all six. In the instance where one author will be left out, list all. Use the same format in the reference list.

Note: Certain referencing software may allow for more than five auhors (e.g. Mendeley allows up to six authors), then use the format of the referencing software.

Write the names of all the authors in the reference list:

Example: Norback, J.S., Lwellyn, D.C, & Hardin, J.R. 2001.


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Two authors with same surname and year of publication

Example: '. . .' (Black, G. 1995:78). This, however, was contested in the same year (Black, C.M. 1995:99).

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Same author, same year

Example: In text
(Brown 2005a)
(Brown 2005b)
Reference list
Weideman, A.J. 2003.
Weideman, A.J. 2003a
Weideman, A.J. 2003b

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Double names for authors

Example: No hyphen in surname: Sonya Buxman Fenwick Write as: Fenwick, Sonja Buxman
Hyphenated surname: Sonya Buxman-Fenwick Write as: Buxman-Fenwick, Sonja


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Author surnames with prefixes

Example: Afrikaans and French: Laura du Toit Write as: Du Toit, Laura.
German: Ludwig van Beethoven Write as: Beethoven, Ludwig van.

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Corporate bodies and organisations

Write out in full in the reference list.
Use the abbreviated form in-text.
Omit articles in front of names of organisations.
Subordinate units in countries: Write country followed by unit, e.g. South Africa. Department of Eduation.

Example: In text
SABC
Reference list
South African Broadcasting Corporation

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Anonymous author or interviewee

State as: [Anonymous and their job, situation or affiliation].
For example: [Anonymous patient] or [Anonymous teacher]

Example: In text
[Anonymous patient 1], (2015) says, "..."
Reference list
[Anonymous patient 1]. 2015.
[Anonymous patient 2]. 2015.


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Secondary reference

Example: Black (quoted in Green 2003:33) says, "..."
Black (in White 2002:22) gives an outstanding analysis ...




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Referencing elements: Date

No date

Latin abbreviation [s.a.] = sine anno; can also use ‘no date’ [n.d.].

Example: In text: (Ross, [s.a.])
Reference list: Ross, F.C.L. [S.a.]. A first course in probability. New York: Macmillan.
Note: Use capital letter after full stop. Use lower case after comma or colon.

 


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Referencing elements: Title: Subtitle

Title

Use precise wording, spelling and word order of original title.
Write the titles of published works in italics. Tiles with subtitles are separated by a colon.
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Example: Graaff-Reinet during the First World War: A socio-historical investigation.


Make sure that you know the requirements of the department/journal with regards to the use of capital letters in titles.
If a title is very long, part of it may be left out when it is referred to in the text. Indicate by an ellipse with a space before and after each full stop ( . . . ), e.g.:

Example: A critical view of linguistics . . .

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Subtitle

Write subtitles with a capital letter (after colon).

Example: Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures.

 

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Anonymous work (not signed as 'Anonymous')

Long titles may be shortened (see note above in this section).

Example: You cannot dance without music though you can sing instrumentally without dancing. 2015.
Shorten as:
You cannot dance without music . . . (2015:3).
(You cannot dance without music . . ., 2015:3).

 


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Referencing elements: Edition

Edition

Specify specific edition of publication.

Example: Press, W.H. 1998. The art of scientific computing. Revised edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

If it is not the first edition, also indicate it as such.

Example: Press, W.H. 1998. The art of scientific computing. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 


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Referencing elements: Place of publication: Publisher

Place of publication

Use the place name indicated most prominently. If more than one name, use the one that is listed first.
If place name is normally associated with specific country, the country does not have to be specified.

Example: Cambridge: ABC Publishing.
BUT
Cambridge, Mass.: Sun Books.


Abbreviate the names of American states.
If the place of publication is not indicated, use the Latin abbreviation ‘s.l.’ (sine loco = without place).
Burden, R.L. & Faires, J.D. 1997. Numerical analysis. [S.l.]: Cole Publishing.

Example: Burden, R.L. & Faires, J.D. 1997. Numerical analysis. [S.l.]: Cole Publishing.

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The information in source references should be in the same language the researcher uses to write the research report. If the report is written in English, place names in the reference list must also be in English. Abbreviations should also be given in English, for example: ed. (editor).

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Publisher
The name of the publisher should be in the shortest form. Omit additions such as 'Ltd.', '& Sons' and 'Inc.'.
'David Gresham Ltd.' becomes 'David Gresham'. 'Macmillan Publishers' becomes 'Macmillan'. The word ‘Press’ is retained in the name of a university press.
If the name of the publisher is not known, use ‘s.n.’ (sine nomine = without name), or the English abbreviation ‘n.n.’ (no name).

Example: Stewart, J. 1995. Early transcendental. Durban: [s.n.].


When both the place of publication and publisher are unknown, use [S.l.: s.n.].
If the author is also the publisher, the name of the publisher is also omitted at the end of the reference.

Example: Aids Foundation of South Africa. 1998. Aids in South Africa. Cape Town.

 


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Referencing elements: Volume, edition, page numbers

Volume, edition and/or page numbers

In the reference list/bibliography, page numbers are only given for chapters or contributions in a book and for articles in journals. Give the numbers of the first and last pages in the reference list/bibliography. Only give specific numbers of the relevant page(s) in the text.

Example: In text: . . . provides clear evidence for this (Matthews, 2000:317).
Reference list: Matthews, R. 2000. A quintet of queuing quirks, in H. Peters (ed.). Mathematical madness. Pretoria: Van Schaik. 316-329.

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Sources with no page numbers

When page numbers are omitted, refer to the paragrah number by using the abbreviation para.

Example: In text: . . . provides clear evidence for this (Van Wyk, 2013:Chapter 1, para. 7).
Reference list: Van Wyk. 2013. Mathematical madness. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Chapter 1, para. 7.

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Scriptural citations

Ruth 3:1-18
2 Kings 11:12


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Referencing elements: Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a number assigned by the International DOI Foundation to trace digital content by means of a persistent link to its location on the Internet. For example, submitting a DOI number for the DOI Handbook (10.1000/182), will retrieve the specific document or set of documents. Alternatively, by clicking on the relevant link (https://doi.org/10.1000/182) for the DOI Handbook, will retrieve the specific document or collection of documents.

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Find a document or document information by using a DOI

Example: Search by using the following DOI in the search box below: 10.1000/182. This will take you to the publisher's website (in this instance to the International DOI Foundation's Handbook).

 

 

doi:

 

For more information, see the International DOI Foundation.



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Reference list and order of references

  • Arrange referencing list alphabetically according to author surname.
  • More than one entry by the same author: arrange chronologically according to date.
  • More than one entry by the same author in the same year: add 2003, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, etc. to distinguish.
  • If no author is shown, arrange according to title.
  • The information in source references should be in the same language the researcher uses to write the research report. If the report is written in English, place names in the reference list must also be in English. Abbreviations should also be given in English, for example: ed. (editor).
Reference list example (excerpt) Comment
Aids Foundation of South Africa. 1998. Aids in South Africa. Cape Town. Author is also publisher.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. 1803.
De Vries, J. 2012.
Du Toit, L. 2010.
Include article, prefix or preposition as surname is used for Afrikaans and French surnames. In German surnames, use last name, e.g. Ludwig van Beethoven becomes Beethoven, Ludwig van.
Graaff-Reinet during the First World War: A socio-historical investigation. No author, arrange according to title.
John, K. 2007.
Johnson, K. 2007.
Rule of 'nothing before something'. John precedes Johnson.
Johnson, K. 2007.
Johnson, K. 2008.
Same author, arranged chronologically according to date.
MacArthur, J. 2010.
McAllister, L. 2012.
M'Carthy, H. 2012.
Prefixes such as M, Mac and Mc in alphabetical order as they are, thus not all as 'Mac'.
Ross, F.C.L. [S.a.]. A first course in probability. New York: Macmillan. No date.
Weideman, A.J. 2003.
Weideman, A.J. 2003a.
Weideman, A.J. 2003b.
Same author, same year.


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Footnotes in the Harvard referencing style

Footnotes can be used to provide extra information. Footnotes should not be used to provide the reference to the source of the material.

Description

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