1. Research originates with a question or problem
2. Research requires clear articulation of goal
3. Research requires a specific plan for proceeding
4. Research usually divides the principal problem into more manageable subproblems
5. Research is guided by the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis
6. Research accepts certain critical assumptions
7. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt to resolve the problem that initiated the research
8. Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical
Leedy, P.D. & Ormond, J.E. 2010. Practical research: planning and design. 9th ed. Pearson: Boston
Step 1: Develop a topic
Step 2: Locate information
Step 3: Evaluate information
Step 4: Use information
Step 5: Legal/Ethical use of information
To paraphrase, follow the steps below:
1. Read the original text until you grasp its meaning; then set it aside.
2. Using your memory, write down the main points or concepts. Do not copy the text verbatim.
3. Change the structure of the text by varying the opening, changing the order of sentences, lengthening or shortening sentences, etc.
4. Replace keywords within the sentences with synonyms or phrases with similar meanings.
5. Check your notes against the original to ensure you have not accidentally plagiarized.
Boolean searching is the traditional way to search for information in most online databases and on the Internet. Boolean operators or connector words, such as AND, OR, and NOT, are used to create phrases and concepts based on specific rules of search logic.
Results will typically include each word or punctuation mark included in the search query. Keep search queries simple and descriptive and use as few terms as possible.
Google automatically truncates search terms. To prevent automatic truncation, use a + sign in front of each term.
Use double quotations marks ("") to search terms as a phrase and narrow your results. Google will only retrieve results that have those exact terms in the exact order typed.
To allow for either of several words to appear in your results, use the OR operator. The operator must be in all caps.
Use the site: feature to limit your results to a specific website or class of websites. A query on cloning site:.gov will only retrieve results within the government domain.