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Research Process: Writing/Editing

This guide gives a full overview of all the aspects of the research process and where to get assistance.


"Scientific text is precise, impersonal and objective. It typically uses the third person, the passive tense, complex terminology, and various footnoting and referencing systems."

Hartley, J. 2008. Academic writing and publishing: A practical handbook. London: Routledge

"Writing academically means writing in a certain style, for a certain purpose, and to a certain audience. The style is formal, the purpose is to persuade and/or to inform, and the audience is your lecturer and the wider community of researchers, including fellow students." 

Characteristics of Academic Writing: A quick guide. Available: 

Some features of academic writing
Precise Your language should communicate exactly what you did. Avoid vague language and generalizations.
Clear    Academic writing involves the communicating of complicated ideas in an easy-to-understand style. Use formal language, without slang, cliches or colloquialisms. Avoid ambiguity and needless complexity. Use language that your audience understands.
Accurate      Facts can be validated and verified and sources are carefully acknowleged.

Academic texts address a certain question or problem. Each paragraph must be focused on one main point or argument.

Concise Eliminate needless repetition of words and phrases that have no meaning. Conciseness usually improves clarity.