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Find, access and use information effectively: a step-by-step guide: Harvard (Stellenbosch) examples A-Z

Find, access and use information effectively: a step-by-step guide

Referencing layout and examples

Harvard Referencing Style and Examples

This section is based on:

  • Lourens, A. c2007. Scientific writing skills: Guidelines for writing theses and dissertations. Stellenbosch: SUN Press. [Examples used with permission from the author].
  • Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Maak sin van verwysings: Die Harvard-, APA- en Vancouver-metode en die voetnootstelsel. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch Universiteit Taalsentrum. [Voorbeelde met toestemming van die outeurs. Sien e-boeke A-Z lys en kliek onder M.].
  • Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Make sense of referencing: The Harvard, APA and Vancouver methods and footnote system. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University Language Centre. [Examples used with permission from the authors. See e-books A-Z list and click on M.].

Referencing elements (rules)

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Volume. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Volume. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Weideman, A.J. 2003. Academic literacy: Prepare to learn. 2nd edition. Vol. 1. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of chapter: Subtitle of chapter, in Editors of book (eds). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page numbers of chapter.

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of chapter: Subtitle of chapter, in Editors of book (eds). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page numbers of chapter.
Blanton, L.L. 1994. Discourse, artefacts and the ozarks: Understanding academic literacy, in V. Zamel & R. Sparks (eds.). Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures. Revised edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 235-319.

 

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol(Issue):page numbers of article.

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume (Issue): Page numbers of article.
Jawitz, J. 1995. Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 1 (9): 101-108.

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Party Names Year of publication Volume number (if available) Law Report Abbreviation Start page (Court Abbreviation, if available)
Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD)
Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue [1993] 2 All SA 496  

Understanding the elements of a bibliographic record or citation (note punctuation):

Author (if available), Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle [Medium]. Available: URL [Access date Year, Month Day].

Author, Initials. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle [Medium]. Available: URL [Access date].
Norback, J.S. 2001. Shoptalk 101: Integrating workplace communication into undergraduate engineering curricula [Online]. http://www.orms-today.org/orms-8-01/norback.htm [2005, August 31].

Electronic sources: Credibility

Evaluate information on Internet.
Consult the Internet Directory of Published Writers at http://www.writers.net to obtain more information on an author.

Name of author or editor (if available)
Title of page/article
Title of web page (look on site’s home page)
Type of medium (e.g. electronic journal, online)
Date which the website was updated, or copyright date
Full Internet address (URL), e.g. http://www. . .
Date on which website was accessed (access date)

In the reference list: Write the surname and initials of authors.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - 

 

Two authors

Norback, J.S. & Lwellyn, D.C.

Use the ampersand (&) in the reference list and when the names of the authors are not part of the sentence:

Example:  '. . .' (Norback & Lwellyn, 2001). This was contested in the same year (Norback & Lwellyn, 2001).

 

When the authors' names form part of the sentence, use 'and':

Example:  According to Norback and Lwellyn (2001:18), ...

 

- - - - - - - - - - - 

 

More than two authors

When reference is made to three or more (up to five) authors, all authors should be indicated in the first instance of mention (in text). Thereafter, use "et al.".

Example:  First reference in text:    Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill and McNamara (1999:25) describe ...
   Subsequent references in text:     Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency (Davies et al., 1999:25).
       Davies et al. (1999:25) describe coherence ...

 

In-text: For more than five authors, list the first five authors followed by et al.

Write the names of all the authors in the reference list:

Example:  Davies, A., Brown, A., Elder, C., Hill, K., Lumley, T. & McNamara, T. 1999. Dictionary of language testing, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  - - - - - - - - - - - 

 

Two authors with same surname and year of publication

Example:    '. . .' (Black, G., 1995:78). This, however, was contested in the same year (Black, C.M., 1995:99).

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

No author

Example:   Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. 2016. Die Burger, 16 June:3.
    Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê, 2016:3).

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Same author, same year

Example: In text
  (Brown, 2005a)
(Brown, 2005b)
  Reference list
  Weideman, A.J. 2003a.
Weideman, A.J. 2003b
Weideman, A.J. 2003c

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

Double names for authors

Example:  No hyphen in surname:  Sonya Buxman Fenwick  Write as:  Fenwick, Sonja Buxman
   Hyphenated surname: Sonya Buxman-Fenwick Write as: Buxman-Fenwick, Sonja


- - - - - - - - - - -

 

Author surnames with prefixes

 

Example:  Afrikaans and French:  Laura du Toit  Write as:   Du Toit, Laura.
  German:  Ludwig van Beethoven  Write as:  Beethoven, Ludwig van.

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

Corporate bodies and organisations

Write out in full in the reference list.
Use the abbreviated form in-text.
Omit articles in front of names of organisations.
Subordinate units in countries: Write country followed by unit, e.g. South Africa. Department of Eduation.

Example:  In text
  SABC
  Reference list
  South African Broadcasting Corporation

- - - - - - - - - - -

 

Anonymous author or interviewee

State as: [Anonymous and their job, situation or affiliation].
For example: [Anonymous patient] or [Anonymous teacher]

 

Example:  In text
  [Anonymous patient 1], (2015) says, "..."
  Reference list
  [Anonymous patient 1]. 2015.
[Anonymous patient 2]. 2015.


 - - - - - - - - - - -

Secondary reference

Example:   Black (quoted in Green, 2003:33) says, "..."
   Black (in White, 2002:22) gives an outstanding analysis ...

No date

Latin abbreviation [s.a.] = sine anno; can also use ‘no date’ [n.d.].

Example: In text: (Ross, [s.a.])
  Reference list: Ross, F.C.L. [s.a.]. A first course in probability. New York: Macmillan.
Note: Use capital letter after full stop. Use lower case after comma or colon.

 

More than one date:

Use '-' to separate the dates:

Mopani District Municipality, 2013-2014. Integrated development plan 2011-2016.

Title

Use precise wording, spelling and word order of original title.
Write the titles of published works in italics. Tiles with subtitles are separated by a colon.
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Example: Graaff-Reinet during the First World War: A socio-historical investigation.


Make sure that you know the requirements of the department/journal with regards to the use of capital letters in titles.
If a title is very long, part of it may be left out when it is referred to in the text. Indicate by an ellipse with a space before and after each full stop ( . . . ), e.g.:

Example: A critical view of linguistics . . .

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

Subtitle

Write subtitles with a capital letter (after colon).

Example:   Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures.

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

Anonymous work (not signed as 'Anonymous')

 

Long titles may be shortened (see note above in this section).

Example:   You cannot dance without music though you can sing instrumentally without dancing. 2015.
Shorten as:
You cannot dance without music . . . (2015:3).
(You cannot dance without music . . ., 2015:3).

Edition

Specify specific edition of publication.

Example: Press, W.H. 1998. The art of scientific computing. Revised edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

If it is not the first edition, also indicate it as such.

Example: Press, W.H. 1998. The art of scientific computing. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Place of publication

Use the place name indicated most prominently. If more than one name, use the one that is listed first.
If place name is normally associated with specific country, the country does not have to be specified.

Example: Cambridge: ABC Publishing.
  BUT
  Cambridge, Mass.: Sun Books.


Abbreviate the names of American states.
If the place of publication is not indicated, use the Latin abbreviation ‘s.l.’ (sine loco = without place).
Burden, R.L. & Faires, J.D. 1997. Numerical analysis. [S.l.]: Cole Publishing.

Example: Burden, R.L. & Faires, J.D. 1997. Numerical analysis. [S.l.]: Cole Publishing.

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

 

The information in source references should be in the same language the researcher uses to write the research report. If the report is written in English, place names in the reference list must also be in English. Abbreviations should also be given in English, for example: ed. (editor).

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Publisher
The name of the publisher should be in the shortest form. Omit additions such as 'Ltd.', '& Sons' and 'Inc.'.
'David Gresham Ltd.' becomes 'David Gresham'. 'Macmillan Publishers' becomes 'Macmillan'. The word ‘Press’ is retained in the name of a university press.
If the name of the publisher is not known, use ‘s.n.’ (sine nomine = without name), or the English abbreviation ‘n.n.’ (no name).

Example: Stewart, J. 1995. Early transcendental. Durban: [s.n.].


When both the place of publication and publisher are unknown, use [S.l.: s.n.].
If the author is also the publisher, the name of the publisher is also omitted at the end of the reference.

Example: Aids Foundation of South Africa. 1998. Aids in South Africa. Cape Town.

Page numbers

In the reference list/bibliography, page numbers are only given for chapters or contributions in a book and for articles in journals. Give the numbers of the first and last pages in the reference list/bibliography. Only give specific numbers of the relevant page(s) in the text.
 

Example: In text: . . . provides clear evidence for this (Matthews, 2000:317).
  Reference list: Matthews, R. 2000. A quintet of queuing quirks, in H. Peters (ed.). Mathematical madness. Pretoria: Van Schaik. 316-329.

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Sources with no page numbers

 

When page numbers are omitted, refer to the paragrah number by using the abbreviation para.

 

Example:   In text: . . . provides clear evidence for this (Van Wyk, 2013:Chapter 1, para. 7).
  Reference list: Van Wyk. 2013. Mathematical madness. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Chapter 1, para. 7.

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Scriptural citations

Ruth 3:1-18
2 Kings 11:12

Footnotes can be used to provide extra information. Footnotes should not be used to provide the reference to the source of the material.

When using a source cited by another author and that original source cannot be located, then cite the source that you consulted when indicating the original source.

In the reference list, write the source that has been used.

Format:

Author Surname, cited in Author Surname Year, thus:

(Coates, cited in Lee, 1986:34)

Coates noted that ... (cited in Lee, 1986:34).

Reference list:

Lee, S.T. 1986. The semantics of advertising. Psychology Today, 19:34-37.

Reference list or bibliography?

The reference list in the Harvard method contains only sources cited in the text. A bibliography contains additional sources to those cited in the text.

Reference list:

  • Write the surname and initials of authors.
  • Arrange referencing list alphabetically according to author surname.
  • More than one entry by the same author: arrange chronologically according to date.
  • More than one entry by the same author in the same year: add 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, etc. to distinguish.
  • If no author is shown, arrange according to title.
  • The information in source references should be in the same language the researcher uses to write the research report. If the report is written in English, place names in the reference list must also be in English. Abbreviations should also be given in English, for example: ed. (editor).
Reference list example (excerpt) Comment
Aids Foundation of South Africa. 1998. Aids in South Africa. Cape Town. Author is also publisher.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. 1803.
De Vries, J. 2012.
Du Toit, L. 2010.
Include article, prefix or preposition as surname is used for Afrikaans and French surnames. In German surnames, use last name, e.g. Ludwig van Beethoven becomes Beethoven, Ludwig van.
Graaff-Reinet during the First World War: A socio-historical investigation. No author, arrange according to title.
John, K. 2007.
Johnson, K. 2007.
Rule of 'nothing before something'. John precedes Johnson.
Johnson, K. 2007.
Johnson, K. 2008.
Same author, arranged chronologically according to date.
MacArthur, J. 2010.
McAllister, L. 2012.
M'Carthy, H. 2012.
Prefixes such as M, Mac and Mc in alphabetical order as they are, thus not all as 'Mac'.
Ross, F.C.L. [s.a.]. A first course in probability. New York: Macmillan. No date.
Weideman, A.J. 2003a.
Weideman, A.J. 2003b.
Weideman, A.J. 2003c.
Same author, same year.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a number assigned by the International DOI Foundation to trace digital content by means of a persistent link to its location on the Internet. For example, submitting a DOI number for the DOI Handbook (10.1000/182), will retrieve the specific document or set of documents. Alternatively, by clicking on the relevant link (https://doi.org/10.1000/182) for the DOI Handbook, will retrieve the specific document or collection of documents.

 - - - - - - - - - - -

Find a document or document information by using a DOI

Example: Search by using the following DOI in the search box below: 10.1000/182. This will take you to the publisher's website (in this instance to the International DOI Foundation's Handbook).

 

 

doi:  

 

 

For more information, see the International DOI Foundation.

Harvard referencing examples A-Z

Examples are arranged alphabetically according to publication type. Some duplication exists to cover varieties of terminologies, for example 'periodical' and 'journal'.

For the addition of examples that are not represented in this list (see, for example, areas marked with '?'), please contact Santie de Jongh (santiedj@sun.ac.za) with further examples to be added.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

A

 

 

Reference list In-text reference

Abstract

Lee, S.T. 1986. The semantics of advertising [Abstract]. Psychology Today, 19:34-37.

(Lee, 1986).

Acts, Laws & Statutes (legislation)

Republic of South Africa. 2000. National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000. Pretoria: Government Printer.
Note:
If this source is available electronically, work according to the guidelines for electronic referencing.

According to the National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000 (Republic of South Africa, 2000), young people are also entitled to be treated with respect and dignity.

Annual report

Library and Information Service. 2019. Annual Report [Online]. Available: https://www0.sun.ac.za/lib/en/mobile/index.html [2020, October 13].

(Library and Information Service, 2019).

Application (mobile app) Northwest Project Development. 2017. Cell Biology-101, Version 1.80 [Mobile app]. Available: https://apkpure.com/cell-biology-101/com.northwestprojectdevelopment.prepcellbio101  [2018, October 10]. (Northwest Project Development, 2017).

Archive material (Special collections)

Coates, A. [1946]. The Boy David [Manuscript]. Albert Coates collection. PDV2. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University.

(Coates, 1946)

 

Cape Archives Depot, Cape Town. Archives of the Anglo-Boer War. A23, List of graves at Woodstock, 1902.

(Cape Archives Depot, 1902)

Archive material (Special collections) - Audiovisual

Mpahleni, L. [2010]. Madosini project. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University.

(Mpahleni, 2010)

Archive material (Special collections) - Audiovisual - specific date

Mpahleni, L. [2010]. Madosini project. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University. 7 October.

(Mpahleni, 2010)

Archive material (Special collections) - Audiovisual - specific instance and date

Mpahleni, L. [2010]. Madosini project [Hans Huyssen interviewing Latozi Mpahleni]. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University. 7 October.

(Mpahleni, 2010)

Archive material (Personal collections)

Roosenschoon, H. 2005. Menorah [Manuscript]. [Manuscript in possession of author].

(Roosenschoon, 2005)

Article: Periodical - vol & number

Jawitz, J. 1995. Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 9(1):101-108.

Higher education institutions admit students to tertiary study on the basis of their matriculation results, since these are seen as adequate indicators of academic success (Jawitz, 1995:105).

 

 

Jawitz (1995:105) underwrites the decision of higher education institutions to admit students on the basis of their matriculation results, since it is seen as adequate indicators of academic success.

Article: Periodical - vol, number & month

Anorexia nervosa. 1987. American Medical Journal, 3(2), June:47-59.

It is a growing problem in the United States (Anorexia nervosa, 1987:53).

Article: Periodical - No author

Anorexia nervosa. 1987. American Medical Journal, 3(2), June:47-59.

Note:

If the author of an article is unknown, the source is listed under the title of the article.

It is a growing problem in the United States (Anorexia nervosa, 1987:53).

Article: Periodical, seasonal Lee, S.T. 1986. The semantics of advertising. Psychology Today, 19:34-37, Fall.
Article: Periodical - electronic database Petrić, B. 2007. Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science [2007, November 30].

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

Article: Periodical - Institutional Repository (post-print articles / off-prints) - with DOI Nell, I.A. 2011. Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1):148-160, doi:10.5952/52-1-13 (no full-stop after DOI)
Note:
Do not cite Institutional Repository URL for articles. Cite original publication.

(Nell, 2011:150)

Article: Magazine, Popular

Cobo, L. 2001. Team songwriting: Boon or bane?, Billboard, 113(32):1, 11 August.

Cobo (2001:1, 11) emphasizes the history and nature of songwriting collaboration.

Article: Magazine, Popular - No author

The hot box. 2012. Billboard, 124(26):29, 4 August.

Elton John has received his first No. 1 place in the U.K. Albums Chart (The hot box, 2012:29).
Article:
Newspaper - Author

Anthony, E. 2016. Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. Die Burger, 16 June:3.
Note:
The article in the titles of newspapers or magazines can be omitted.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Anthony, 2016:3).

Anthony (2016:3) indicates that penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres.

Article: Newspaper - No author

Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. 2016. Die Burger, 16 June:3.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê, 2016:3).

Article: Newspaper - No author, no title

Die Burger. 2016. 16 June:3.
Note:
If the author and the title of an article are unknown, the source is listed under the title of the newspaper or magazines can be omitted.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Die Burger, 2016:3).

Article: Newspaper (electronic database)

Merryment, E. 2006. Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own. The Australian [Electronic], 7 October:5. Available: http://www.dowjones.com/factiva/  [2007, February 2].

(Merryment, 2006:5)

Atlas - editor

Rasmussen, C. (ed.). c2010. Zondervan atlas of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan.

(Rasmussen, 2010)

Atlas - no editor

RSA atlas. 1996. Rev. ed. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman.

As can be seen in the RSA atlas (1996), ...

 

 Top of page

B

 

 

Reference list In-text reference

Bible (religious text)

Nelson, T. (ed.). 1994. Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Philadelphia: Pew Library.

These particular lines (Psalm 23:1-4) refer to God as the Shepherd.

Bible (religious text) - Online source

Nelson, T. (ed.). 1982. Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson [Online]. Available: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Isaiah+61&version=NKJV. [2016, April 19].

These particular lines (Isaiah 61:1-3) refer to Jesus Christ as the Comforter and Healer.

Blog (Web log)

Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found. 2013, January 14. The History Blog [Web log post]. Available: http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/22791  [2013, January 15].

(Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found, 2013)

Blog (Web log) - author

Olivier, H. 2013, July 24. Klei-klank soundtrack 2011: Hannelore Olivier and Laura du Toit. Critical landscapes blog [Web log post]. Available: http://criticallandscapesblog.wordpress.com/author/hanneloreoli4/ [2014, February 17].

(Olivier, 2013)

Book: One author

Weideman, A.J. 2003. Academic literacy: Prepare to learn. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

A thorough understanding of what is read is a prerequisite for good academic writing (Weideman, 2003:111).
Weideman (2003:111) claims that a thorough understanding of the text is a prerequisite for good writing.
Book: Two authors Bachman, L.F. & Palmer, A.S. 1996. Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reliability is one of the characteristics of a good test (Bachman & Palmer, 1996:61).
According to Bachman and Palmer (1996:61), reliability is one of the characteristics of a good test.
Book: More than two authors

Davies, A., Brown, A. , Elder, C. , Hill, K. & McNamara, T. 1999. Dictionary of language testing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

For first reference in text:
Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts (Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill & McNamara, 
1999:25).

 

 

For all subsequent references in text:
Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts (Davies et al., 1999:25).
 

 

or
 

 

For first reference in text:
Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill and McNamara (1999:25) describe coherence as an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts
.
 

 

For all subsequent references in text:
Davies et al. (1999:25) describe coherence as an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts.
Book: No author

Advertising in the Western Cape. 1995. Cape Town: ABC Publishers.

This was apparently not the case before 1990 (Advertising in the Western Cape, 1995:14)

 

Advertising in the Western Cape (1995:14) stipulates that this was apparently not the case before 1990.
Book: Editor

Anderson, P.K. (ed.). 1993. Encyclopedia of Renewable Energy. San Francisco: Pegasus.

or

Anderson, P.K. (red.). 1993. Encyclopedia of Renewable Energy. San Francisco: Pegasus.
Note:
(ed.) is the English abbreviation for editor. If your text is written in Afrikaans, you will write (red.) instead of (ed.).

Hydro energy is one example of renewable energy (Anderson, 1993:73).

Anderson (1993:73) lists hydro energy as an example of renewable energy.

Book: Corporate body

Independent Television Commission. 1988. The ITC code of advertising standards and practice. London.

(Independent Television Commission, 1988:48)

Book: Chapter, under editor

Blanton, L.L. 1994. Discourse, artefacts and the ozarks: Understanding academic literacy, in V. Zamel & R. Spack (eds.). Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 235-319.

Note:

Use the appropriate abbreviation for one or more editors (English and Afrikaans examples):

One editor - (ed.)  - (red.)

More than one editor - (eds.) - (reds.)

The main implication is that texts should require interaction with the focus on negotiation of meaning within specific contexts (Blanton, 1994:237).

According to Blanton (1994:237), the main implication is that tests should require interaction with the focus on negotiation of meaning within specific contexts.

Book (edition) Weideman, A.J. 2003. Academic literacy: Prepare to learn. 2nd edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik. (Weideman, 2003:7)
Book (multivolume)

Kinkeldey, O. 1957. Chinese music, in Yust (editor in chief), Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 5. Great Britain: Encyclopædia Britannica, Ltd. 574-575.

The foundation of the -system was a set of measured pitch pipes that were specifically calculated and charged with cosmological significance (Kinkeldey 1957:574).

Book (part of series)

Albertyn, J.R. 1932. The poor white and society, in The poor white problem in South Africa: Report of the Carnegie Commission, vol. 5, Sociological report: The poor white and society. Stellenbosch: Pro Ecclesia. 1-146.

According to Albertyn (1932:7)

Book: Translated work

Sergardi, L. 1994. The Satires. R.E. Pepin (tr.). New York: P. Lang.

Note:

If your text is written in Afrikaans, you will write (vert.) instead of (tr.).

(Sergardi, 1994)

Book: Work in progress

Schroeder, L.B. 2003. The evolution of women (in press).
Note:

The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

(Schroeder, 2003)

Book review

Gouws, A. 2000. Review of Whole language: What's the difference?, by C. Edelsky, B. Altwerger & B. Flores. Literator, 44(2):225-227.

(Gouws, 2000:191)

Brief, policy

Dickson, B., Bertzky, M., Christophersen, T., Epple, C., Kapos, V., Narloch, U. & Trumper, K. [2014]. REDD+ beyond carbon: Supporting decisions on safeguards and multiple benefits. UN-REDD Programme policy brief,(2) [Online]. Available: http://www.unredd.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=8533&Itemid=53 [2015, June 12].

According to Dickson et al. (2014:2) ...

Brief, security

Osinowo, A.A. 2015. Combating piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. Africa Security Brief, 30, February [Online]. Available: http://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ASB-30-Feb-2015-Combating-Piracy-in-GoG.pdf  [2015, June 12].

Osinowo (2015:1) ...

Brochure (Pamphlet)

Le May, G.H.L. 1967. South Africa: The future. Cape Town: C.A. Algar.

(Le May, 1967:3)

Brochure (Pamphlet): No author

Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika. 1989. Pretoria: Buro vir Inligting.

(Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika, 1989:8)

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Reference list In-text reference

Cases (Law)

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD)
or
Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue [1993] 2 All SA 496
Note:
For the first citation to a case, refer in full with the Party Names and law report citation.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD)

 

Note:
Unless it is not clear to which case you refer, then refer to the case subsequently by first party names only.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue

 

When paraphrasing from a judgement, include specific pages (and paragraphs where applicable) after the reference.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD), 163

   

or

   

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD) at 163

 

Note:
When quoting directly from a judgment put the quote in “ ”. You can shorten the quote with …

This point is reinforced in the judgment of Grosskopf JA in Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD), 182 when he said “The word ‘onderneming’, which corresponds to ‘venture’ in English text, seems in general somewhat wider although it is capable of bearing the same meaning.”

Cases in textbooks (Law)

Note:
It is best to refer to a law report. For cases in a textbook, cite the book (e.g. Haupt) in the reference list.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD) (cited in Haupt 2015, p. 115) implies that…

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Reference list In-text reference

Catalogue

Alborough, A. 2002. Collective works (catalogue). Stellenbosch: Sasol Art Museum.

(Alborough, 2002)

CD-ROM

Odendal, F.F. & Gouws, R.H. 2000. Elektroniese Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal [CD-ROM]. Available: Perskor [2007, September 20].
Note:
If the author information is not available, the title is listed first.

Odendal and Gouws (2000) define ...

Class lectures

Van Dyk, T.J. 2013. Akademiese Geletterdheid EOT 151-154. Class lecture (Akademiese taalvaardigheid 151-154). Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

A consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed (Van Dyk, 2013).

Class notes

Bosman, K., Gilson, G., Swart, S., Van Dyk, T.J. & Van Rensburg, C. 2005. Akademiese Geletterdheid EOT 151-154. Class notes (Akademiese taalvaardigheid 151-154). Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

A consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed (Bosman et al., 2005:1).

 

 

From a study by Bosman et al. (2005:1) it appears that a consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed.

Class notes (electronic)

Johnson, K. 2007. Psychology 114 Class notes. Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/webstudies  [2007, May 3].

Johnson (2007) is of the opinion that the basic principles of bahaviourism is still relevant.

Commentaries, religious (Bible)

Dunn, J.D.G. 1988. Word Biblical commentary: Romans 1-8. vol. 38a. Dallas: Word Books.

According to Dunn (1998:35) ...

Commentaries, religious, chapter (Bible)

George, T. 1994. History: No other gospel (1:1-2:21). In George, T. The new American commentary: Galatians. vol. 30. Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers. 67-202.

According to George (1994:95) ...

Commentaries, religious, chapter (Bible)

Craddock, F.B. 1998. Hebrews 10:19-39, Life in response to this ministry of Christ. In Keck, L.E. et alThe new interpreter's Bible in twelve volumes, vol. XII. Nashville: Abingdon Press. 67-200.

According to Craddock (1998:75) ...

Computer game

Core Design. 1996. Tomb Raider (PC Game). Wimbledon: Eidos Interactive.

(Core Design, 1996)

Computer software

Finale (computer software). 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.finalemusic.com [2012, August 14]

(Finale, 2012)
Concert programmes (programme notes) Oosthuizen, M. 2014. Vaalvalk [Programme notes]. Arnold van Wyk Juvenilia. Endler Hall, Stellenbosch. 20 September.

(Oosthuizen 2014)

Conference paper - published Coetzee, M. & Van Dyk, T.J. 2006. Engineers on the foreground: An integral approach to language acquisition, in Engineering education for sustainable development. Pretoria: University of Pretoria: 215-222.

Academic language proficiency develops over a period of time (Coetzee & Van Dyk, 2006:217).

In their study Coetzee and Van Dyk (2006:271) confirm that academic language proficiency develops over a period of time.

Conference paper - unpublished Coetzee, M. & Van Dyk, T.J. 2006. Engineers on the foreground: An integral approach to language acquisition. Unpublished paper delivered at the Third African Regional Conference on Engineering Education. 26 September, Pretoria.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Academic language proficiency develops over a period of time (Coetzee & Van Dyk, 2006).

Coetzee and Van Dyk (2006) found that academic language proficiency develops over a period of time.

Conference paper (electronic) Basole, R.C. 2007. The emergence of the mobile enterprise: A value-driven perspective, in N. Archer, K. Hassanein & Y. Yuan (eds.). ICMB 2007 conference proceedings. 9-11 July, Ontario, Canada. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society  [Electronic]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ez.sun.ac.za/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=4278534 [2013, May 24].

Mobile technology is more widely used in business (Basole, 2007).

Conference paper (electronic) - publication unknown Basole, R.C. 2007. The emergence of the mobile enterprise: A value-driven perspective. Sixth International Conference on Mobile Technologies (ICMB 2007). [S.n.: s.l.] [Electronic]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ez.sun.ac.za/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4278584 [2013, May 24].

Mobile technology is more widely used in business (Basole, 2007).

Correspondence: Letter, fax, memo, etc. Vermeulen, L. 2007. Correspondence. 23 September, Stellenbosch.

In 2004, only 47% of the enrolled first-year students completed their studies in the prescribed period (Vermeulen, 2007).

Correspondence: E-mail Joyce, M. 2001. Pattern recognition, E-mail to M. Otto [Online], 13 Jan. Available E-mail: mjoyce@sun.ac.za.

(Joyce, 2001)

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Dance (live performance)

South African National Ballet. Giselle. [Maynardville Theatre, Cape Town, 27 January 2013].

(South African National Ballet, 2013)

Database: Journal (periodical) article

Petrić, B. 2007. Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science [2007, November 30].

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

Database and software

IRESS Expert. 2017. Research domain. Software and database. Johannesburg.

The data in the graph from company xyz ... (IRESS Expert, 2017)

(IRESS Expert, 2017)

 

 

or
    The data required to calculate the measures investigated in this study, were obtained from the IRESS Expert Database (2017).

Datasets

Statistics South Africa. 2012. Census 2011: Statistical release [Online]. Available: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P03014/P030142011.pdf  [2013, January 15].

(Statistics South Africa, 2012)

Diagram, Image, Figure

Office for National Statistics. 2013. Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/HTMLDocs/dvc1/UKPyramid.html

[2013, June 17].

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013 (Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013)

 

 

or

   

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013
(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013)

   

or

   

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013
Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013

Diagram, Image, Figure (Internet)

Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter. 2010. [Online]. Available: http://de.academic.ru/pictures/dewiki/82/Rudolf_Schlechter.jpg  [2012, November 21].
Note:
Place reference directly under image, figure or diagram.

(Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter, 2010)

Dictionary entry, specific word

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1964. S.v. 'punk'. London: Benton.
Note:
Reference to specific word is preceded by the Latin abbreviation 's.v.' (sub verbo = under the word) or the English abbreviation 'u.w.' (under the word).

Punk music is defined as '...' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1964).
Dictionary entry, specific word (Online dictionary) Macmillan Dictionary. 2017. S.v. 'digitization' [Online]. Available: https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionoary/british/digitization  [2020, March 2]. The MacMillan Dictionary (2017) defines digitisation as '...'.

Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry

The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships. 2001. London: Prentice Hall.

A periscope can be defined as ... (The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships, 2001:45).

 

 

The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships (2001:45) defines a periscope as ...

Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry, author contribution

Fawcett, P. 1998. Linguistic approaches, in M. Baker (ed.). Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies. London: Routledge. 105.

(Fawcett, 1998:105)

Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry, electronic source

Sutton, R.A. 2010. South-east Asia, in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online [Electronic]. Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/43742  [2012, September 20].

Anderson Sutton (2010) gives a broad overview of South-East Asian tuning systems.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Nell, I.A. 2011. Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1):148-160, doi:10.5952/52-1-13 (no full-stop after DOI)
Note:
DOI by International DOI Foundation.

(Nell, 2011:150).

Discography (sound recordings)

Bach, J.S. 1981. Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721. Concentus Musicus Wien. Conductor Nicolas Harnoncourt. SAWT 9460-A. Hamburg: Telefunken. Sleeve notes by N. Harnoncourt.

The analysis required intensive listening to J.S. Bach's (1981) Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721, conducted by Nicolas Harnoncourt.

Dissertation, Doctoral (unpublished)

De Boer, A. 1992. Akademiese steungewing gebaseer op 'n behoeftebepaling vir die Technikon Noord-Transvaal. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Academic support is also the responsibility of a student service point (De Boer, 1992:17).

Dissertation, Doctoral (published)

Tallent, C.N. 2011. The referral process: Rural primary care physicians' perspectives on providing counseling referrals. Published doctoral dissertation. Ann Arbor: Proquest.

(Tallent, 2011:47).

Dissertations, Theses (Institutional repository)

Ramuhala, M.G. 2010. Military intervention in Africa after the Cold War. Unpublished masters thesis. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4186  [2014, July 3].
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.
URL:
Use persistent links from Institutional Repository for theses and dissertations.

(Ramuhala, 2010:48)

 

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Reference list In-text reference

E-book

Beerbohm, M. 1922. A defence of cosmetics. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company [Online]. Available: http://www.archive.org/details/defenceofcosmeti00beer  [2006, June 15].

Beerbohm (1922) opposes the testing of cosmetic products on animals.

E-book (via E-book reader)

Beerbohm, M. 2011. A defence of cosmetics [Kindle version]. Available: http://www.amazon.com  [2012, June 15].

Note:

Use date of Kindle edition.

Beerbohm (2011) opposes the testing of cosmetic products on animals.

E-mail (Correspondence)

Joyce, M. 2001. Pattern recognition, E-mail to M. Otto [Online], 13 Jan. Available E-mail: mjoyce@sun.ac.za.

(Joyce, 2001)

Electronic database: Journal article

Petrić, B. 2007. Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science [2007, November 30].

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

Electronic database: Newspaper article

Merryment, E. 2006. Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own. The Australian [Electronic], 7 October:5. Available: http://www.dowjones.com/factiva/  [2 February 2007].

(Merryment, 2006:5)

Electronic source: Class notes

Johnson, K. 2007. Psychology 114 Class notes. Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/webstudies  [2007, May 3].

Johnson (2007) is of the opinion that the basic principles of bahaviourism is still relevant.

Electronic source: Dictionary entry

Sutton, R.A. 2010. South-east Asia, in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online [Electronic]. Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/43742  [2012, September 20].

Anderson Sutton (2010) gives a broad overview of South-East Asian tuning systems.

Electronic source: Website

Beets, M. 2014. Sidetracked with Joshua Na die Reën [Online]. Available: http://gatewaynews.co.za/sidetracked-with-joshua-na-die-reen/ [2016, April 19].

(Beets, 2014)

Electronic source: Website (no author)

Hugh Masekela: The official site: Biography [Online]. [n.d.]. Available: http://www.hughmasekela.co.za/index.php/bigraphy-copy  [2016, April 19].

(Masekela, n.d.)

Encyclopaedia entry

The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships. 2001. London: Prentice Hall.

A periscope can be defined as ... (The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships, 2001:45).

The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships (2001:45) defines a periscope as ...

Encyclopaedia entry, author contribution

Fawcett, P. 1998. Linguistic approaches, in M. Baker (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London: Routledge.

(Fawcett, 1998)

Encyclopaedia entry: volume number

Kinkeldey, O. 1957. Chinese music, in Yust (editor in chief). Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 5. Great Britain: Encyclopædia Britannica, Ltd. 574-575.

The foundation of the -system was a set of measured pitch pipes that were specifically calculated and charged with cosmological significance (Kinkeldey 1957:574).

Encyclopaedia entry, electronic source

Sutton, R.A. 2010. South-east Asia, in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online [Electronic]. Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/43742  [2012, September 20].

Anderson Sutton (2010) gives a broad overview of South-East Asian tuning systems.

Exhibition catalogue Alborough, A. 2002. Collective works (catalogue). Stellenbosch: Sasol Art Museum. (Alborough, 2002)

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Figure, Image, Diagram

Office for National Statistics. 2013. Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/HTMLDocs/dvc1/UKPyramid.html  [2013, June 17].

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013 (Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013)

 

 

or

   

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013
(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013)

   

or

   

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013
Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013

Figure, Image, Diagram (Internet)

Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter. 2010. [Online]. Available: http://de.academic.ru/pictures/dewiki/82/Rudolf_Schlechter.jpg  [2012, November 21].
Note:
Place reference directly under image, figure or diagram.

(Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter, 2010)

Film

An inconvenient truth [film]. 2006. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.

According to An inconvenient truth (2006), one-third of Greenland's ice caps have melted since 2000.

 

 

One-third of Greenland's ice caps have melted since 2000 (An inconvenient truth, 2006).

Financial data

South Africa Reserve Bank. 2016. Release of selected monthly data: Economic indicators (seasonally adjusted) [Online]. Available: https://wwwrs.resbank.co.za/webindicators/MonthlyIndicators.aspx?DataType=MRDEI [2016, August 10].

(South African Reserve Bank, 2016)

Financial data

Statistics South Africa. 2016. Consumer Price Index: Additional tables, June [Online]. Available: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0141/P0141June2016_Tables.pdf [2016, August 10].

(Statistics South Africa, 2016:9-10)

Frameworks (Guidelines, Policies) Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service. 2014. Information Literacy training framework [Online]. Available: https://library.sun.ac.za/SiteCollectionDocuments/training/Info%20literacy%20training%20framewrk%20(30%20Sept%20
2014)%20-%20trackd%20changes%20accepted.pdf  [2020, May 6].
The Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service (2014:1) gives a definition of Information Literacy.

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Government publication (White Paper)

South Africa. 1980. White paper on the improvement of public transport. Pretoria: Government Publisher.

(South Africa, 1980)

Government publication (White Paper, Online) World Economic Forum. 2016. White paper on digital transformation of industries: Media, entertainment and information, January 11 [Online]. Available: http://reports.weforum.org/digital-transformation/wp-content/blogs.dir/94/mp/files/pages/files/wef-dti-mediawhitepaper-final-january-2016.pdf [2020, February 4].

A World Economic Forum White Paper (2016:11) provides ...

The focus soon moves to mobile technologies (World Economic Forum, 2016:11).

Government publication

Office of the Federal Register National Archive and Records Management. 2018. Code of Federal Regulation, 42 - Public Health [Online]. Available: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2018-title42-vol1/xml/CFR-2018-title42-vol1-chapI.xml#seqnum8.1 [2019, May 3].

Note:
See 'Law' for rules about sections, subsections, paragraphs and subparagraphs.

(Office of the Federal Register National Archive and Records Management, 2018) ...

Government publication

Office of the Federal Register National Archive and Records Management. 2018. Code of Federal Regulation, 42 - Public Health [Online]. Available: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2018-title42-vol1/xml/CFR-2018-title42-vol1-chapI.xml#seqnum8.1  [2019, May 3].

Note:
See 'Law' for rules about sections, subsections, paragraphs and subparagraphs.

According to 42 C.F.R. s 7.2 (Office of the Federal Register National Archive and Records Management, 2018) ...
Guidelines (Policies, frameworks) Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service. 2014. Information Literacy training framework [Online]. Available: https://library.sun.ac.za/SiteCollectionDocuments/training/Info%20literacy%20training%20framewrk%20(30%20Sept%20
2014)%20-%20trackd%20changes%20accepted.pdf  [2020, May 6].
The Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service (2014:1) gives a definition of Information Literacy.

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Image, Figure, Diagram

Office for National Statistics. 2013. Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/HTMLDocs/dvc1/UKPyramid.html  [2013, June 17].

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013 (Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013)

 

 

or

   

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013
(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013)

   

or

   

Figure 1: Age structure of United Kingdom for 2013
Source: Office for National Statistics, 2013

Image, Figure, Diagram (Internet)

Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter. 2010. [Online]. Available: http://de.academic.ru/pictures/dewiki/82/Rudolf_Schlechter.jpg  [2012, November 21].
Note:
Place reference directly under image, figure or diagram.

(Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter, 2010)

IRESS Expert (Database and software)

IRESS Expert. 2017. Research domain. Software and database. Johannesburg.

The data in the graph from company xyz ... (IRESS Expert, 2017)

(IRESS Expert, 2017)

 

 

or

 

 

The data required to calculate the measures investigated in this study, were obtained from the IRESS Expert Database (2017).

Institutional Repository - post-print articles / off-prints

Nell, I.A. 2011. Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1):148-160, doi:10.5952/52-1-13
Note:
Do not cite Institutional Repository URL for articles. Cite original publication.

No full-stop after DOI.

(Nell, 2011:150)

Institutional Repository - theses or dissertations

Ramuhala, M.G. 2010. Military intervention in Africa after the Cold War. Unpublished masters thesis. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4186  [2014, July 3].
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.
URL:
Use persistent links from Institutional Repositories for theses and dissertations.

(Ramuhala, 2010:48)

Internet (Website) - Author

Norback, J.S., Lwellyn, D.C, & Hardin, J.R. 2001. Shoptalk 101: Integrating workplace communication into undergraduate engineering curricula [Online]. Available: http://www.orms-today.org/orms-8-01/norback.html  [2005, August 31].

The communication skills of engineers are more important today than ever before (Norback et al., 2001).

According to Norback et al. (2001), the communication skills of engineers are very important.

Internet (Website) - No author

Guidelines for using charts and graphs. 2005. [Online]. Available: http://www.sandhills.edu/academic-departments/english/wordguide/chartadvice.html  [2006, February 23]. Graphs must have a specific purpose to justify its use (Guidelines for using charts and graphs, 2005).
Interview, Internet (Website) Interview: Jacob Collier. 2016. M Magazine [Online]. Available: https://www.m-magazine.co.uk/genres/jazz-genres/interview-jacob-collier/ [2018, August 13]. The inspiration behind Collier ... (Interview: Jacob Collier, 2018).
Interview, Internet (YouTube) Variety. 2014. 'Theory of everything' interview: Johann Johannsson [Video file]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xn795LO10_U&t=49s/ [2018, August 13]. (Variety, 2014).
Interview (Personal communication) Coetzee, M. 2007. Personal interview. 30 November, Stellenbosch. Since 2005, the trend has been an average annual increase of 10% in the number of international students (Coetzee, 2007).

Interview (Personal communication), recorded

Coetzee, M. 2007. Personal interview. 30 November, Stellenbosch. [Recording in possession of author]. Since 2005, the trend has been an average annual increase of 10% in the number of international students (Coetzee, 2007).

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Reference list In-text reference

Journal (periodical), vol & issue number

Jawitz, J. 1995. Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 9(1):101-108.

Higher education institutions admit students to tertiary study on the basis of their matriculation results, since these are seen as adequate indicators of academic success (Jawitz, 1995:105).

 

 

Jawitz (1995:105) underwrites the decision of higher education institutions to admit students on the basis of their matriculation results, since it is seen as adequate indicators of academic success.

Journal (periodical) - vol, issue number & month

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 31(15), December:43-54.

 

Journal (periodical) - vol, issue number & season

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 31(15), Summer:43-54.

 

Journal (periodical) - only volume number

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 31:43-54.

 

Journal (periodical) - only issue number

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, (15):43-54.

 

Journal (periodical) - No author

Anorexia nervosa. 1987. American Medical Journal, 3(2), June: 47-59.

Note:

If the author of an article is unknown, the source is listed under the title of the article.

It is a growing problem in the United States (Anorexia nervosa, 1987:53).

Journal (periodical) - Electronic database Petrić, B. 2007. Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science [2007, November 30].

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Kindle (E-book reader)

Beerbohm, M. 2011. A defence of cosmetics [Kindle version]. Available: http://www.amazon.com  [2012, June 15].

Note:

Use date of Kindle edition.

Beerbohm (2011) opposes the testing of cosmetic products on animals.

 

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L

 

Reference list In-text reference

Law (Cases)

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD)
or
Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue [1993] 2 All SA 496
Note:
For the first citation to a case, refer in full with the Party Names and law report citation.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD)

 

Note:
Unless it is not clear to which case you refer, then refer to the case subsequently by first party names only.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue

When paraphrasing from a judgement, include specific pages (and paragraphs where applicable) after the reference.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD), 163

   

or

   

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD) at 163

 

Note:
When quoting directly from a judgment put the quote in “ ”. You can shorten the quote with …

This point is reinforced in the judgment of Grosskopf JA in Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD), 182 when he said “The word ‘onderneming’, which corresponds to ‘venture’ in English text, seems in general somewhat wider although it is capable of bearing the same meaning.”

Law (Cases in textbooks)

Note:
It is best to refer to a law report. For cases in a textbook, cite the book (e.g. Haupt) in the reference list.

Burgess v Commissioner for Inland Revenue 1993 (4) SA 161 (AD) (cited in Haupt 2015, p. 115) implies that…

Laws, Acts & Statutes (legislation)

Republic of South Africa. 2000. National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000. Pretoria: Government Printer.
Note:
If this source is available electronically, work according to the guidelines for electronic referencing.

According to the National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000 (Republic of South Africa, 2000), young people are also to be treated with respect and dignity.

Laws, Acts & Statutes (legislation)

Republic of South Africa. 1997. Higher Education Act 101 of 1997. Pretoria: Government Printer.

According to s 56(1) of the Higher Education Act 101 of 1997 (Republic of South Africa, 1997) ...

or

According to subsec (1) of s 56 of the Higher Education Act 101 of 1997 (Republic of South Africa, 1997) ...

Lectures (class lectures)

Van Dyk, T.J. 2013. Akademiese Geletterdheid EOT 151-154. Class lecture (Akademiese taalvaardigheid 151-154). Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

A consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed (Van Dyk, 2013).

Live performance: Dance South African National Ballet. 2013. Giselle. [Maynardville Theatre, Cape Town, 27 January]. (South African National Ballet, 2013)
Live performance: Play

Steyn, R. & Fugard, A. 2013. Die laaste Karretjiegraf. 2013. [Play]. [Fugard Theatre, Cape Town, 25 January].

(Steyn & Fugard, 2013)

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Acts

For the first citation to a case, refer in full, e.g.:

Higher Education Act 101 of 1997

Subsequent citations can be abbreviated:

Higher Education Act 101 of 1997 (hereinafter referred to as the Higher Education Act).

When referring to only one Act, then write: Higher Education Act 101 of 1997 (hereinafter referred to as the Act).

When referring to more than one Act, refer to the specific Act, e.g. Higher Education Act, South African Schools Act, etc.

Acts are divided into the following hierarchical units: sections, subsections, paragraphs and subparagraphs, therefore:

section 1, subsection (1), paragraph (a), subparagraph (i)

For the first citation to a case, refer in full.

Abbreviate as follows:

section: s (plural: ss)
subsection: subsec (plural: subsecs)
paragraph: para (plural: paras)
subparagraph (subparas)

Example: s 56(1) or subsec (1) of s 56

Two or more subsections: subsecs (1) and (4) of s 56, or s 56(1) and (4).

Constitutions

Refer to the final Constitution, e.g.:

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereinafter referred to as the Constitution).

Provincial ordinances

Use same format as for Acts.

Where necessary, add the province, e.g.:

Property Valuation Ordinance of 1993 (WC)

Subordinate legislation

For subordinate legislation (proclamations, rules, regulations, bylaws, ordinances or schedules to an Act) in the Government Gazette (abbreviation: GG) and similar official publications, the following is applicable:

Schedules are divided into paragraphs or items and subparagraphs or subitems:

Schedule 7 para 15 (4) (a) of the Higher Education Act 101 of 1997.

Proclamations are divided into sections, subsections and paragraphs:

Proclamation 56 GG 40334 of 7 October 2016

By Proc 56 of 2016 the amendment was made to the Higher Education Act 101 of 1997.

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Reference list In-text reference

Magazine, Popular

Cobo, L. 2001. Team songwriting: Boon or bane?, Billboard, 113(32):1, 11 August.

Cobo (2001:1, 11) emphasizes the history and nature of songwriting collaboration.

Magazine, Popular - No author

The hot box. 2012. Billboard, 124(26):29, 4 August.

Elton John has received his first No. 1 place in the U.K. Albums Chart (The hot box, 2012:29).
Map

Senex, J. 1740. Africa [Map]. Hugh Solomon Map Collection, Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service.

(Senex, 1740)
Market survey report

Holm, D. 2005. Market survey of solar water heating in South Africa for the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) of t he Central Energy Fund (CEF). Johannesburg:  SolaSure.

(Holm, 2005)
Market survey report (Internet)

Holm, D. 2005. Market survey of solar water heating in South Africa for the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) of the Central Energy Fund (CEF) [Online]. Available: http://www.cef.org.za/solar_market_survey.pdf  [2012, November 21]

(Holm, 2005)
Microfiche

Warner, J.L. 2001. Children's attitudes towards race and gender. MA thesis, University of Cincinnati [Microfiche]. Available: ERIC document: ED465131.

(Warner, 2001)
Minutes Network for African Congregational Theology (NETACT). 2013. Minutes of the 2013 NETACT Annual General Meeting 10-11 July 2013, Worcester, South Africa. Network for African Congregational Theology (2013:3).
Mobile app Northwest Project Development. 2017. Cell Biology-101, Version 1.80 [Mobile app]. Available: https://apkpure.com/cell-biology-101/com.northwestprojectdevelopment.prepcellbio101  [2018, October 10]. (Northwest Project Development, 2017).
Music score (Sheet music)

Beethoven, L. van. 1976. Klaviersonaten, vol. 1. Edited by B.A. Wallner. (Urtextausgabe). München: Henle Verlag.

(Beethoven, 1976)
Music score (Sheet music): arranged by

Fitzgerald, E. & Feldman, A. 1938. A-tisket, a-tasket: For three-part treble voices & piano. Arranged by David J. Elliott. [U.S.A]: Robbins Music.

Fitzgerald and Feldman (1938) ...

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Reference list In-text reference

Newspaper cutting – Author

Anthony, E. 2016. Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. Die Burger, 16 June:3.
Note:
The article in the titles of newspapers or magazines can be omitted.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Anthony, 2016:3).

Anthony (2016:3) indicates that penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres
.

Newspaper cutting (Internet) Anthony, E. 2016. Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. Die Burger [Online], 16 June:3. Available: http://www/pressreader.com/south-africa/die-burger/20160616/281642484455586  [2018, November 12]. Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Anthony, 2016:3).
Newspaper cutting (Electronic database) Merryment, E. 2006. Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own. The Australian [Electronic], 7 October:5. Available: http://www.dowjones.com/factiva/  [2 February 2007]. (Merryment, 2006:5)

Newspaper cartoon

Zapiro. 2012. Cameron can der Burgh breaks world record at Olympic Games [Cartoon]. Times, 31 July.

(Zapiro, 2012).

Article: Newspaper - No author

Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. 2016. Die Burger, 16 June:3.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê, 2016:3).

Newspaper cutting - No author, no title

Die Burger. 2016. 16 June:3.
Note:
If the author and the title of an article are unknown, the source is listed under the title of the newspaper or magazines can be omitted.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Die Burger2016:3).

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Reference list In-text reference

Original works of art

Hayls, J. 1666. Samuel Pepys [Oil on canvas]. National Portrait Gallery, London.

The portrait by Hayls (1666) was commissioned by Samuel Pepys.

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Pamphlet (Brochure)

Le May, G.H.L. 1967. South Africa: The future. Cape Town: C.A. Algar.

(Le May, 1967:3)

Pamphlet (Brochure): No author

Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika. 1989. Pretoria: Buro vir Inligting.

(Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika, 1989:8)

Patent

Danin, C. 2003. Article of furniture. SA Patent ZA1993/01575.

(Danin, 2003)

Periodical (journal), vol & number

Jawitz, J. 1995. Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 9(1):101-108.

Higher education institutions admit students to tertiary study on the basis of their matriculation results, since these are seen as adequate indicators of academic success (Jawitz, 1995:105).

 

 

Jawitz (1995:105) underwrites the decision of higher education institutions to admit students on the basis of their matriculation results, since it is seen as adequate indicators of academic success.

Periodical (journal) - vol, issue number & month

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 31(15), December:43-54.

 

Periodical (journal) - vol, issue number & season

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 31(15), Summer:43-54.

 

Periodical (journal) - only volume number

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, 31:43-54.

 

Periodical (journal) - only issue number

Hilton, J. 1993. Cohesion in Latin. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde, (15):43-54.

 

Periodical (journal) - No author

Anorexia nervosa. 1987. American Medical Journal, 3(2), June:47-59.

Note:

If the author of an article is unknown, the source is listed under the title of the article.

It is a growing problem in the United States (Anorexia nervosa, 1987:53).

Periodical (journal) - Electronic database

Petrić, B. 2007. Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science [2007, November 30].

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

Personal communication: E-mail

Van Dyk, T.J. 2005. Academic writing for university students, e-mail to M. Orr [Online], 17 March. Available e-mail: tvd@sun.ac.za.

According to Van Dyk (2005), flow and coherence are some of the basic characteristics of good academic writing.

Personal communication: Letter/fax/memo, etc.

Vermeulen, L. 2007. Correspondence. 23 September, Stellenbosch.

In 2004, only 47% of the enrolled first-year students completed their studies in the prescribed period (Vermeulen, 2007).

Personal communication: Interview

Coetzee, M. 2007. Personal interview. 30 November, Stellenbosch.

Since 2005, the trend has been an average annual increase of 10% in the number of international students (Coetzee, 2007).

Personal communication: Anonymous

[Anonymous teacher]. 2015. Personal interview. 17 June, Stellenbosch.

Since 2005, the trend has been an average annual increase of 10% in the number of international students (Anonymous teacher, 2007).

Photographs

Breytenbach, C. [n.d.]. Eoan opera group [Photographs]. Cloete Breytenbach collection. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University.

(Breytenbach, n.d.).

Play (live performance)

Steyn, R. & Fugard, A. 2013. Die laaste Karretjiegraf. 2013. [Play]. [Fugard Theatre, Cape Town, 25 January 201].

(Steyn & Fugard, 2013)

Play script, published

Fugard, A. 1985. The road to Mecca: A play in two acts: Suggested by the life and work of Helen Martins of New Bethesda. London: Faber and Faber.

(Fugard, 1985)

Podcast

The National Gallery. 2013. Episode seventy five (January 2013), The National Gallery monthly podcast [Podcast]. Available: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/podcasts/ [2013, January 15].

(National Gallery, 2013)

Poem

Owen, W. 1920. Poems. London: Chatto & Windus.

(Owen, 1920)

Poem (anthology/from anthology)

Johnson, J. (ed.). 2001. South African poems. Cape Town: Callisto.

The poem African Sky by Matamela (Johnson, 2001:67) indicates ...

This was indicated by Matamela's African Sky (Johnson, 2001:67),

 

Note:

Referencing for poems differs from referencing from book chapters.

In-text: mention the poem, poet and page number, with source indicated in brackets.

Reference list: Reference the source where  poem can be found.

References to specific verses and lines can be mentioned in the discussion about the poem.

 
Policies (Frameworks, guidelines) Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service. 2014. Information Literacy training framework [Online]. Available: https://library.sun.ac.za/SiteCollectionDocuments/training/Info%20literacy%20training%20framewrk%20(30%20Sept%20
2014)%20-%20trackd%20changes%20accepted.pdf  [2020, May 6].
The Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service (2014:1) gives a definition of Information Literacy.
Policies (general) Stellenbosch University. [n.d.]. Institutional policies and guidelines [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/english/learning-teaching/ctl/t-l-policies-and-guidelines/institutional  [2020, May 6]. The Stellenbosch University (n.d.) institutional policies indicate ...
Policies (specific unit) Stellenbosch University Centre for Teaching and Learning. 2017. Strategy for teaching and learning 2017-2021 [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/english/learning-teaching/ctl/Documents/SU%20TL%20Strategy.pdf  [2020, May 6]. The Stellenbosch University Centre for Teaching and Learning (2017) drafted guidelines ...
    The importance of digital literacy is noted in the Strategy for Teaching and Learning (Stellenbosch University Centre for Teaching and Learning, 2017).

Policy brief

Dickson, B., Bertzky, M., Christophersen, T., Epple, C., Kapos, V., Narloch, U. & Trumper, K. [2014]. REDD+ beyond carbon: Supporting decisions on safeguards and multiple benefits. UN-REDD Programme policy brief,(2) [Online]. Available: http://www.unredd.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=8533&Itemid=53 [2015, June 12].

According to Dickson et al. (2014:2) ...

PowerPoint presentation Johnson, K. 2007. Psychology 114 Class notes. Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/webstudies  [2007, May 3].

Johnson (2007) is of the opinion that the basic principles of bahaviourism is still relevant.

Press release Van Niekerk, A. 2015. Stamselnavorsing aan die US [Press release]. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.  22 June.

(Van Niekerk, 2015).

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Radio broadcast

Skrywers en boeke. 2012. Radio Sonder Grense. Wednesday 12 December.

Skrywers en boeke (2012)

Religious commentaries (Bible)

Dunn, J.D.G. 1988. Word Biblical Commentary. Romans 1-8. vol. 38a. Dallas: Word Books.

According to Dunn (1998:35) ...

Religious commentaries, chapter (Bible)

George, T. 1994. History: No other gospel (1:1-2:21), in T. George. The new American commentary: Galatians. vol. 30. Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers. 67-202.

According to George (1994:95) ...

Religious commentaries, chapter (Bible)

Craddock, F.B. 1998. Hebrews 10:19-39, Life in response to this ministry of Christ, in L.E. Keck et alThe new interpreter's Bible in twelve volumes. vol. XII. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

According to Craddock (1998:42) ...

Religious text: Bible

Nelson, T. (ed.). 1994. Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Philadelphia: Pew Library.

These particular lines (Psalm 23:1-4) refer to God as the Shepherd.

Religious text: Bible - Online source

Nelson, T. (ed.).  1982. Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson [Online]. Available: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Isaiah+61&version=NKJV. [2016, April 19].

These particular lines (Isaiah 61:1-3) refer to Jesus Christ as the Comforter and Healer. 

Religious text: Tanakh - Online source

Rosenberg, A.J. (ed.).  2016. The complete Tanach with Rashi's commentary[S.l.]: Judaica Press [Online]. Available: http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8176. [2016, April 19].

Note:

Use the date of the Website if no other date is indicated.

This section (Genesis 12) refers to the Abrahamic blessing.

Report Leitch, S. 2006. Leitch review of skills: Prosperity for all in the global economy: World class skills: Final report. [London]: Stationery Office. (Leitch, 2006:19)
Report (Corporate author) South African Administration: House of Representatives. Dept. of Local Government, Housing and Agriculture. 1987. The socio-economic development of Genadendal, Bereaville, Voorstekraal and Bosmanskloof. Riversadale: Allen and Von Ravensburg. (South African Administration: House of Representatives. Dept. of Local Government, Housing and Agriculture, 1987)
Report (Corporate author) General Motors. 2002. 2001 Annual Report. Detroit: General Motors. Sales have doubled since the turn of the century (General Motors, 2002).
Report (Corporate and Multiple authors)

Stage, F.K., Muller, P.A., Kinzie, J., Simmons, A., Association for the Study of Higher Education, ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, & George Washington University. 1998. Creating learning centered classrooms: What does Learning Theory have to say? ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report [Electronic], 26(4). Available: https://eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED422778  [2018, April 11]

Stage, et al. (1998)
Report (electronic) Leitch, S. 2006. Leitch review of skills: Prosperity for all in the global economy: World class skills: Final report. [London]: Stationery Office [Online]. Available: http://www.delni.gov.uk/leitch_finalreport051206%5b1%5d-2.pdf  [2013, July 17] (Leitch, 2006:19)
Report (Annual report) Library and Information Service. 2019. Annual Report [Online]. Available: https://www0.sun.ac.za/lib/en/mobile/index.html [2020, October 13]. (Library and Information Service, 2019).
Report (Market survey) Holm, D. 2005. Market survey of solar water heating in South Africa for the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) of the Central Energy Fund (CEF). Johannesburg: SolaSure. (Holm, 2005)
Report (Market survey, electronic) Holm, D. 2005. Market survey of solar water heating in South Africa for the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) of the Central Energy Fund (CEF) [Online]. Available: http://www.cef.org.za/solar_market_survey.pdf  [2012, November 21] (Holm, 2005)

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Reference list In-text reference

Security brief

Osinowo, A.A. 2015. Combating piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. Africa Security Brief, 30, February [Online]. Available: http://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ASB-30-Feb-2015-Combating-Piracy-in-GoG.pdf  [2015, June 12].

Osinowo (2015:1) ...

Sheet music (Music score)

Beethoven, L. van. 1976. Klaviersonaten, vol. 1. Edited by B.A. Wallner. (Urtextausgabe). München: Henle Verlag.

(Beethoven, 1976)

Sheet music (Music score): arranged by

Fitzgerald, E. & Feldman, A. 1938. A-tisket, a-tasket: For three-part treble voices & piano. Arranged by David J. Elliott. [U.S.A]: Robbins Music.

Fitzgerald and Feldman (1938) ...

Social media (Twitter)

@litreviewhq. 2014, January 29. The get more out of google infographic summarizes online research tricks for students [Twitter post]. Available: https://twitter.com[2013, January 15].

(@litreviewhq, 2014)

Social media (video - YouTube)

Advances in architectural geometry. 2012, October 2 [Video file]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRfNbhyPPKs [2013, January 15].

(Advances in architectural geometry, 2012)

Social media (video - YouTube - author)

Arts at MIT. 2012, October 2. Advances in architectural geometry [Video file]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRfNbhyPPKs [2013, January 15].

(Arts at MIT, 2012)

Social media (Web log)

Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found. 2013, January 14. The History Blog [Web log post]. Available: http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/22791  [2013, January 15].

(Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found, 2013)

Social media (Web log - author)

Olivier, H. 2013, July 24. Klei-klank soundtrack 2011: Hannelore Olivier and Laura du Toit. Critical landscapes blog. [Web log post]. Available: http://criticallandscapesblog.wordpress.com/author/hanneloreoli4. [2014, February 17]

(Olivier, 2013)

Social networking site

Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service. 2013. Social networking group (Facebook), 26 November [Online]. Available: http://www.facebook.com [2013, January 15].

(Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service, 2013)

Software (Mobile app) Northwest Project Development. 2017. Cell Biology-101, Version 1.80 [Mobile app]. Available: https://apkpure.com/cell-biology-101/com.northwestprojectdevelopment.prepcellbio101  [2018, October 10]. (Northwest Project Development, 2017).

Software and databases

McGregor BFA (Pty) Ltd. 2012. Research domain. Software and database. Johannesburg.

The data in the graph from company xyz ... (McGregor BFA, 2012)

 

 

or

   

The data required to calculate the measures investigated in this study, were obtained from the McGregor BFA Database (2012).

(McGregor BFA, 2012)

Sound recording

Bach, J.S. 1981. Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721 [Include format]. Concentus Musicus Wien. Conductor Nicolas Harnoncourt. SAWT 9460-A. Hamburg: Telefunken. Sleeve notes by N. Harnoncourt.

Note:

Include format in square brackets, e.g. CD, Vinyl, etc.

The analysis required intensive listening to J.S. Bach's (1981) Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721, conducted by Nicolas Harnoncourt.

Sound recording (track) Debussy, C. 1989. 'Suite bergamasque', on A Debussy recital [CD]. London: Decca. Suite Bergamasque by Debussy (1989) ...
Sound recording: CD Debussy, C. 1982. Images [CD]. Paris City Orchestra. Conductor Daniel Barenboim. 429487-2. Hamburg: Deutsche Grammophon. Liner notes by Anthony Burton. The analysis required intensive listening to Claude Debussy's (1982) Images.

Sound recording: LP

Bach, J.S. 1981. Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721 [Vinyl]. Concentus Musicus Wien. Conductor Nicolas Harnoncourt. SAWT 9460-A. Hamburg: Telefunken. Sleeve notes by N. Harnoncourt. The analysis required intensive listening to J.S. Bach's (1981) Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721, conducted by Nicolas Harnoncourt.
Sound recording: Online Goosen, A. 2014. Boy van die Suburbs (en Kruidjie-Roer-my-nie) [Online].  Available: https://itunes.apple.com/za/album/boy-van-die-suburbs-en-kruidjie-roer-my-nie/id866464894 [2017, October 20]. Listening to Anton Goosen's (2014) Boy van die Suburbs, ...

Sound recording: Sound cassette

Bach, J.S. 1981. Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721 [Sound cassette]. Concentus Musicus Wien. Conductor Nicola Harnoncourt. SAWT 9460-A. Hamburg: Telefunken. Sleeve notes by N. Harnoncourt. The analysis required intensive listening to J.S. Bach's (1981) Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721, conducted by Nicolas Harnoncourt.

Special collections (Archive material)

Coates, A. [1946]. The Boy David [Manuscript]. Albert Coates collection. PDV2. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University. (Coates, 1946)

 

Cape Archives Depot, Cape Town. Archives of the Anglo-Boer War. A23, List of graves at Woodstock, 1902. (Cape Archives Depot, 1902)

Special collections (Archive material, personal collections)

Roosenschoon, H. 2005. Menorah [Manuscript]. [Manuscript in possession of author]. (Roosenschoon, 2005)

Speech

Muller, S. 2009. Transfer of the Eoan archive to DOMUS, 23 April, Stellenbosch [Online] Available: http://www.domus.ac.za/content/view/43/5/. [2013, May 14]. (Muller, 2009)

Standard

South African Bureau of Standards. 1996. Packaging of dangerous goods for road and rail transportation in South Africa. Pretoria: South African Bureau of Standards. (South African Bureau of Standards, 1996)

Statutes, Acts & Laws (legislation)

Republic of South Africa. 2000. National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000. Pretoria: Government Printer.
Note:
If this source is available electronically, work according to the guidelines for electronic referencing.
According to the National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000 (Republic of South Africa, 2000), young people are also entitled to be treated with respect and dignity.

SUNScholar (Institutional Repository: post-print articles / off-prints)

Nell, I.A. 2011. Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1):148-160, doi:10.5952/52-1-13
Note:
Do not cite Institutional Repository URL for articles. Cite original publication.
No full-stop after DOI.

(Nell, 2011:150)

SUNScholar (Institutional Repository: theses or dissertations)

Ramuhala, M.G. 2010. Military intervention in Africa after the Cold War. Unpublished masters thesis. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4186  [2014, July 3].
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.
URL:
Use persistent links from Institutional Repository for theses and dissertations.
(Ramuhala, 2010:48)

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Reference list In-text reference

Table

Newham, L.T.H., Cuddy, S.M., Vertessy, R.A. & Jakeman, A.J. 2004. Informing the design of catchment contaminant cycle modelling - a survey of end-user needs: CSIRO Land and Water Technical Report 11/04. Canberra: CSIRO Land and Water.

Table 1: Primary interest in the management of contaminants stratified by activity type (Source: Newham, Cuddy, Vertessu & Jakeman, 2004:5)

 

 

or

   

Table 1: Primary interest in the management of contaminants stratified by activity type

(Source: Newham, Cuddy, Vertessu & Jakeman, 2004:5)

Tanakh (Religious text- Online source

Rosenberg, A.J. (ed.). 2016. The complete Tanach with Rashi's commentary[S.l.]: Judaica Press [Online]. Available: http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8176. [2016, April 19].

Note:

Use the date of the Website if no other date is indicated.

This section (Genesis 12) refers to the Abrahamic blessing.

Television programme

Egoli [Video recording]. 29 November 2007. Johannesburg: M-Net.

The patricarch Chris Edwards is not at home to support his daughter during her disciplinary hearing (Egoli, 2007).

Thesis, Master's

Crathorne, P.J. 2010. Video game genres and their music. Unpublished master's thesis. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.

Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

In opera, music is used to accompany mostly sung text, but also drama and sometimes even dancing on-stage (Crathorne, 2010:9).

Dissertation, Doctoral (unpublished)

De Boer, A. 1992. Akademiese steungewing gebaseer op 'n behoeftebepaling vir die Technikon Noord-Transvaal. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

Academic support is also the responsibility of a student service point (De Boer, 1992:17).

Dissertation, Doctoral (published)

Tallent, C.N. 2011. The referral process: Rural primary care physicians' perspectives on providing counseling referrals. Published doctoral dissertation. Ann Arbor: Proquest.

(Tallent, 2011:47)

Theses and dissertations (Institutional Repository)

Ramuhala, M.G. 2010. Military intervention in Africa after the Cold War. Unpublished masters thesis. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4186  [2014, July 3].
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.
URL:
Use persistent links from Institutional Repository for theses and dissertations.

(Ramuhala, 2010:48)

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Reference list In-text reference

Video file (Social media)

Advances in architectural geometry. 2012, October 2. [Video file]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRfNbhyPPKs [2013, January 15].

(Advances in architectural geometry, 2012)

Video file (Social media - author)

Arts at MIT. 2012, October 2. Advances in architectural geometry [Video file]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRfNbhyPPKs [2013, January 15].

(Arts at MIT, 2012)

Video game

Core Design. 1996. Tomb Raider [PC game]. Wimbledon: Eidos Interactive.

(Core Design, 1996)

Video recording

Australia's geological history [Video recording]. 1986. Sydney: Outback Films.

(Australia's geological history, 1986)

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Web log (blog)

Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found. 2013, January 14. The History Blog [Web log post]. Available: http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/22791  [2013, January 15].

(Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found, 2013)

Web log (blog) - author

Olivier, H. 2013, July 24. Klei-klank soundtrack 2011: Hannelore Olivier and Laura du Toit. Critical landscapes blog [Web log post]. Available: http://criticallandscapesblog.wordpress.com/author/hanneloreoli4  [2014, February 17].

(Olivier, 2013)

Website (Internet)

Beets, M. 2014 Sidetracked with Joshua Na die Reën [Online]. Available: http://gatewaynews.co.za/sidetracked-with-joshua-na-die-reen/ [2016, April 19].

(Beets, 2014)

Website (Internet - no author)

Hugh Masekela: The official site: Biography [Online]. [n.d.]. Available: http://www.hughmasekela.co.za/index.php/bigraphy-copy  [2016, April 19].

(Hugh Masekela, n.d.)

White Paper (Government publication)

Republic of South Africa. Department of Education. 1995. White Paper on education and training. Government Gazette no. 16312, 15 March.

Note:
If this source is available electronically, work according to the guidelines for electronic referencing.

According to the White Paper on education and training (Republic of South Africa, 1995:21), Higher Education should be accessible to everybody.

White Paper (Government publication, Online) World Economic Forum. 2016. White paper on digital transformation of industries: Media, entertainment and information, January 11 [Online]. Available: http://reports.weforum.org/digital-transformation/wp-content/blogs.dir/94/mp/files/pages/files/wef-dti-mediawhitepaper-final-january-2016.pdf [2020, February 4].

A World Economic Forum White Paper (2016:11) provides ...

The focus soon moves to mobile technologies (World Economic Forum, 2016:11).

Wiki

Discourse DB. 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.discoursedb.org/wiki/Main_Page [2012, November 21]

(Discourse DB, 2012)

Working paper

Mzamane, M.V. 2001. Where there is no vision the people perish: Reflections on the African Renaissance. Working Paper No. 16. Magill, South Australia: Hawke Institute, University of South Australia.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

“Abuja and Accra were, in some important respects, dress rehearsals for the launch of the Millenium Partnership for African Recovery Program” (Mzamane, 2001:16).

Working paper (Institution included)

Cook, D. 2014. Boko Haram: A new Islamic state in Nigeria. Religion and Public Policy Working Paper, James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University [Online]. Available: http://bakerinstitute.org/media/files/files/5f1f63c4/BI-pub-BokoHaram-121114.pdf  [2015, August 27].

(Cook, 2014:7)

 

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Reference list In-text reference

Yearbook

Stellenbosch University. 2009-B. Yearbook for 2009 of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences [Online]. Available: http://www.sun.ac.za/university/jaarboek/ [2012, September 20].

The Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences proved to be relevant to the present study (Stellenbosch University 2009:57-66).

Youtube

Hashim Amla press conference, 14 November 2012 [Video file]. Available:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbDjQFwnSnM  [2012, November 16].

(Hashim Amla press conference, 2012)

 

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