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Find, access and use information effectively: a step-by-step guide: APA

Find, access and use information effectively: a step-by-step guide

APA Referencing Elements (rules)

This section is based on:

  • Lourens, A. c2007. Scientific writing skills: Guidelines for writing theses and dissertations. Stellenbosch: SUN Press. [Examples used with permission from the author].
  • Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Maak sin van verwysings: Die Harvard-, APA- en Vancouver-metode en die voetnootstelsel. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch Universiteit Taalsentrum. [Voorbeelde met toestemming van die outeurs. Sien e-boeke A-Z lys en kliek onder M.].
  • Van Dyk, T. & Coetzee, M. 2010. Make sense of referencing: The Harvard, APA and Vancouver methods and footnote system. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University Language Centre. [Examples used with permission from the authors. See e-books A-Z list and click on M.].

Two authors

Norback, J.S. & Lwellyn, D.C.

Use the ampersand (&) in the reference list and when the names of the authors are not part of the sentence:

Example:  '. . .' (Norback & Lwellyn, 2001). This was contested in the same year (Norback & Lwellyn, 2001).

 

When the authors' names form part of the sentence, use 'and':

Example:  According to Norback and Lwellyn (2001:18), ...

 

- - - - - - - - - - - 

 

More than two authors

When reference is made to three or more authors, all authors should be indicated in the first instance of mention (in text). Thereafter, use "et al.".

Example:  First reference in text:  Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill, Lumley and McNamara (1999:25) describe ...
   Subseqent references in text:  Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency (Davies et al., 1999:25).
     Davies et al. (1999:25) describe coherence ...

For more than five authors, list the first five authors followed by et al. Use the same format in the reference list.

If there are, for example six authors, list all six. In the instance where one author will be left out, list all. Use the same format in the reference list.

Note: Certain referencing software may allow for more than five auhors (e.g. Mendeley allows up to six authors), then use the format of the referencing software.

 

Write the names of all the authors in the reference list:

Example:  Norback, J.S., Lwellyn, D.C. & Hardin, J.R. (2001).


  - - - - - - - - - - - 

 

Two authors with same surname and year of publication

Example:  '. . .' (Black, G. 1995:78). This, however, was contested in the same year (Black, C.M. 1995:99).

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

No author

Example:   Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. 2016. Die Burger, 16 June:3.
    Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê, 2016:3).

 

 - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Same author, same year

Example: In text
  (Brown 2005a)
(Brown 2005b)
  Reference list
  Weideman, A.J. (2003a).
Weideman, A.J. (2003b).
Weideman, A.J. (2003c).

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

Double names for authors

Example:  No hyphen in surname:  Sonya Buxman Fenwick  Write as:  Fenwick, Sonja Buxman
   Hyphenated surname: Sonya Buxman-Fenwick Write as: Buxman-Fenwick, Sonja


- - - - - - - - - - -

 

Author surnames with prefixes

 

Example:  Afrikaans and French:  Laura du Toit  Write as:   Du Toit, Laura.
  German:  Ludwig van Beethoven  Write as:  Beethoven, Ludwig van.

 

- - - - - - - - - - -

Corporate bodies and organisations

Write out in full in the reference list.
Use the abbreviated form in-text.
Omit articles in front of names of organisations.
Subordinate units in countries: Write country followed by unit, e.g. South Africa. Department of Eduation.

Example:  In text
  SABC
  Reference list
  South African Broadcasting Corporation

- - - - - - - - - - -

 

Anonymous author or interviewee

State as: [Anonymous and their job, situation or affiliation].
For example: [Anonymous patient] or [Anonymous teacher]

 

Example:  In text
  [Anonymous patient 1], (2015) says, "..."
  Reference list
  [Anonymous patient 1]. (2015).
[Anonymous patient 2]. (2015).


 - - - - - - - - - - -

Secondary reference

Example:   Black (quoted in Green 2003:33) says, "..."
   Black (in White 2002:22) gives an outstanding analysis ...

APA Referencing Style and Examples

Examples are arranged alphabetically according to publication type.

For the addition of examples that are not represented in this list (see, for example, areas marked with '?'), please contact Marleen Hendriksz (mmvw@sun.ac.za) with further examples to be added.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

A

 

APA

Reference list In-text reference

Abstract

Lee, S.T. (1986). The semantics of advertising [Abstract]. Psychology Today, 19, 34-37.

(Lee, 1986).

Acts, Laws & Statutes (legislation)

Republic of South Africa. (2000). National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printer.

Note:
If this source is available electronically, work according to the guidelines for electronic referencing.

According to the National Youth Commission Amendment Act 19 of 2000 (Republic of South Africa, 2000), young people are also entitled to be treated with respect and dignity.

Annual report

General Motors. (2002). 2001 Annual report. Detroit, MI: General motors.

Sales have doubled since the turn of the century (General Motors, 2002).

Archive material (Special collections)

Coates, Albert. (1946). The Boy David [Manuscript]. Albert Coates collection. PDV2. Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University.

(Coates, 1946)

Article: Periodical - vol & number

Jawitz, J. (1995). Performance in first- and second-year engineering at UCT. South African Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 101–108. doi:10.xxxxxx

Note:

The title of the journal is italicized and not the title of the article.
When doi isn’t available use: Retrieved from http://full URL. No retrieval date is necessary.

The abbreviation “pp.” is not used in the reference list to indicate page numbers – the comma directly after the volume and issue numbers fulfils this function.

Higher education institutions admit students to tertiary study on the basis of their matriculation results, since these are seen as adequate indicators of academic success (Jawitz, 1995).

 

 

or:

 

 

Jawitz (1995) underwrites the decision of higher education institutions to admit students on the basis of their matriculation results, since it is seen as adequate indicators of academic success.

Article: Periodical, paginated by volume

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893–896.

Harlow (1983)

Article: Periodical - vol, number & month

Lee, S.T. (1986). The semantics of advertising. Psychology Today, 19(3), 34-37.

According to Lee (1968), the main objective of advertising is…

Article: Periodical, seasonal Lee, S.T. (1986). The semantics of advertising. Psychology Today, 19, 34-37.  
Article: Periodical - electronic database Petrić, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes [Electronic], 6(3). Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

Article: Periodical - Institutional Repository (post-print articles / off-prints) - with DOI Nell, I.A. 2011. Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1), 148-160. doi:10.5952/52-1-13 (no full-stop after DOI)
Note:
Do not cite Institutional Repository URL for articles. Cite original publication.

(Nell, 2011)

Article: Magazine, Popular

Cobo, L. 2001. Team songwriting: Boon or bane?, Billboard, 113(32), 1, 11 August.

Cobo (2001) emphasizes the history and nature of songwriting collaboration.

Article: Magazine, Popular - No author

The hot box. 2012. Billboard, 124(26), 29, 4 August.

Elton John has received his first No. 1 place in the U.K. Albums Chart (The hot box, 2012).
Article:
Newspaper - Author

Anthony, Elmarine. (2016, June 16) Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. Die Burger, p. 3.
Note:
The article in the titles of newspapers or magazines can be omitted.

Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.
If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5–B7).

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Anthony, 2016).

Anthony (2016) indicates that
penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres.

Article: Newspaper - No author

Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê. (2016, June 16). Die Burger, p. 3.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Diepste pikkewyn-duik vasgelê, 2016).

Note:

If the author of an article is unknown, the
Article: Newspaper - No author, no title

Die Burger. (2016, June 16) p. 3.

Note:

If the author and title are unknown, the source is listed under the title of the newspaper or magazine.

Penguins can dive deeper than 200 metres (Die Burger, 2016).

 

Article: Newspaper (electronic)

Meryment, E. (2006, October 7). Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own. The Australian, Retrieved from http://www.dowjones.com/factiva/

Note:

Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs.

(Merryment, 2006)

or:

Merryment (2006) discusses the role of wine in ...

Atlas - editor

Rasmussen, C. (Ed). (2010). Zondervan atlas of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

(Rasmussen, 2010, Map 36)

Atlas - no editor RSA atlas. (1996). Rev. ed. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman.

As can be seen in the RSA atlas (1996, Map 36), ...

or:

As can be seen in the the Western Cape (RSA atlas, 1996, Map 36) the ...

Atlas: Author

Orr, D. M. (2000). The North Carolina atlas: Portrait for a new century. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

As can been seen in the North Carolina Atlas (Orr, 2000) the environment changes ...

 

 

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APA

Reference list In-text reference

Bible (religious text)

Nelson, T. (ed.). (1994). Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Philadelphia: Pew Library.
Note:
For For your first citation, identify the version which you used.

These particular lines (Psalm 23:1-4 New King James Version) refer to God as the Shepherd.

Blog (Web log)

Possible 9-foot model of Brunelleschi's dome found. (2013, January 14). The History Blog [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/22791  (14.01.2013)

(Possible 9-foot model, 2013)

Blog (Web log) - author

Olivier, H. (2013, July 24). Klei-klank soundtrack 2011: Hannelore Olivier and Laura du Toit. Critical landscapes blog [Web log post]. Retrieved from: http://criticallandscapesblog.wordpress.com/author/hanneloreoli4/ (14.01.2013)

(Olivier, 2013)

Book: One author

Weideman, A.J. (2003). Academic literacy: Prepare to learn. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

A thorough understanding of what is read is a prerequisite for good academic writing (Weideman, 2003).
Weideman (2003) claims that a thorough understanding of the text is a prerequisite for good writing.
Book: Two authors Bachman, L.F. & Palmer, A.S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reliability is one of the characteristics of a good test (Bachman & Palmer, 1996).
According to Bachman & Palmer (1996), reliability is one of the characteristics of a good test.
Book: More than two authors

Davies, A., Brown, A., Elder, C., Hill, K., Lumley, T. & McNamara, T. (1999). Dictionary of language testing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

For first reference in text:
Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts (Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill, Lumley & McNamara, 
1999).

 

 

For all subsequent references in text:
Coherence is an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts (Davies et al., 1999).
 

 

or
 

 

For first reference in text:
Davies, Brown, Elder, Hill, Lumley and McNamara (1999) describe coherence as an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts
.
 

 

For all subsequent references in text:
Davies et al. (1999) describe coherence as an aspect of discourse competency that refers to the sequence of continuity of ideas in written or spoken texts.
Book: No author

Advertising in the Western Cape. (1995). Cape Town: ABC Publishers.

This was apparently not the case before 1990 (Advertising in the Western Cape, 1995)

 

Advertising in the Western Cape (1995) stipulates that this was apparently not the case before 1990.
Book: Editor

Anderson, P.K. (Ed.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Renewable Energy. San Fransisco: Pegasus.

or

Anderson, P.K. (Red.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Renewable Energy. San Fransisco: Pegasus.
Note:
(Ed.) is the English abbreviation for editor. If your text is written in Afrikaans, you will write (Red.) instead of (Ed.).

Hydro energy is one example of renewable energy (Anderson, 1993).

Anderson (1993) lists hydro energy as an example of renewable energy.

Book: Editor (Revised copy)

Barnard, C. revised by Brewer, C. (Ed.). 1993. The second life: Memoirs. Cape Town: Vlaeberg.

(Barnard 1993)

Book: Corporate body

Independent Television Commission. (1988). The ITC code of advertising standards and practice. London.

(Independent Television Commission, 1988)

Book: Chapter, under editor

Blanton, L.L. (1994). Discourse, artefacts and the ozarks: Understanding academic literacy. In V. Zamel & R. Spack (Eds.). Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across languages and cultures (pp. 235-319), New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Note:

Use the appropriate abbreviation for one or more editors (English and Afrikaans examples):

One editor - (Ed.)  - (Red.)

More than one editor - (Eds.) - (Reds.)

The main implication is that texts should require interaction with the focus on negotiation of meaning within specific contexts (Blanton, 1994).

According to Blanton (1994), the main implication is that tests should require interaction with the focus on negotiation of meaning within specific contexts.

Bauer, M. & Gregory, J. (2007). From journalism to corporate communication in post-war Britain. In M. Bauer & M. Bucchi (Eds). Journalism, science and society. New York, NY: Routledge. 33-52. (Bauer & Gregory, 2007)
Bell, A & Turney, J. (2014). Popular science books: From public education to science bestsellers. In M. Bucci & B. Trench (Eds). Routledge handbook of public communication of science and technology. New York, NY: Routledge. 15-26. (Bell & Turney, 2014)
Borchelt, R.E. & Nielsen, K.H. (2014). Public relations in science: Managing the trust portfolio. In M. Bucci & B. Trench (Eds). Routledge handbook of public communication of science and technology. New York, NY: Routledge. 58-69. (Borchelt & Nielsen, 2014)
Book: Translated work

Sergardi, L. (1994). The Satires. (R.E. Pepin, Trans.). New York: P. Lang.

(Sergardi, trans. 1994)

Book: Work in progress

Schroeder, L.B. (2003). The evolution of women. Unpublished manuscript. Morris: University of Minnesota Morris.

 

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication:

 

Schroeder, L.B. (2003). The evolution of women. Manuscript submitted for publication. Morris: University of Minnesota Morris.

(Schroeder, 2003)

Book review

Eddy, C.M. (2018, November 17). Mathematics for all: From fantasy to reality. [Review of the book Sociopolitical dimensions of mathematics education: From the margin to the mainstream, by M. Jurdak & R. Vithal]. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 99(3), 359-362. doi10.1007/s10649-018-9837-0

(Eddy, 2018)

Brief, policy

Dickson, Barney, Bertzky, Monika, Christophersen, Tim, Epple, Cordula, , Kapos, Valerie, Narloch, Ulf & Trumper, Kate. (2012). REDD+ beyond carbon: Supporting decisions on safeguards and multiple benefits. UN-REDD Programme policy brief,(2) [Online]. Retrieved from: http://www.unredd.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=8533&Itemid=53 (12.06.2015)

For first reference in text:

According to Dickson et al. (2012) ...

For all subsequent references in text: Dickson et al. (2012)

Brief, security

Osinowo, Adeniyi Adejimi. (2015). Combating piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. Africa Security Brief, 30, February [Online]. Retrieved from: http://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ASB-30-Feb-2015-Combating-Piracy-in-GoG.pdf  (12.06.2015)

Osinowo (2015) ...

Brochure (Pamphlet)

Le May, G.H.L. (1967). South Africa: The future. Cape Town: C.A. Algar.

Note:

If non routine information is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets immediately after the title:

Le May, G.H.L. (1967). South Africa: The future [Brochure]. Cape Town, South Africa: C.A. Algar.

(Le May, 1967)

Brochure (Pamphlet): No author

Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika. (1989). Pretoria: Buro vir Inligting.

(Staatkundige hervorming in Suid-Afrika, 1989)

 

 

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APA

Reference list In-text reference

Catalogue

Alborough, A. (2002). Collective works (catalogue). Stellenbosch: Sasol Art Museum.

(Alborough, 2002)

CD-ROM

Odendal, F.F. & Gouws, R.H. (2000). Elektroniese Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal [CD-ROM]. Available: Perskor [2007, September 20].
Note:
If the information on the author(s) is not available, the title is listed first.

Odendal and Gouws (2000) define pride as an excessive feeling of self-worth or an overestimation of the self.

Class lectures

Van Dyk, T.J. (2013). Akademiese Geletterdheid EOT 151-154. Class lecture (Akademiese taalvaardigheid 151-154). Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Note:
The title of an unpublished work is not italicised.

A consequence of insufficient levels of academic literacy is that, among others, first-year university students do not successfully complete their studies in the minimum time allowed (Van Dyk, 2013).

Commentaries, religious (Bible)

Dunn, J.D.G. (1988). Word Biblical commentary: Romans 1-8. vol. 38a. Dallas: Word Books.

According to Dunn (1998) ...

Commentaries, religious, chapter (Bible)

George, T. (1994). History: No other gospel (1:1-2:21). In T. George, The new American commentary: Galatians. vol. 30 (pp. 67-202) Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers.

According to George (1994) ...

Commentaries, religious, chapter (Bible)

Craddock, F.B. (1998). Hebrews 10:19-39, Life in response to this ministry of Christ. In L.E.Keck, The new interpreter's Bible in twelve volumes, vol. XII. (pp. 67-200) Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.

According to Craddock (1998) ...

Computer game

Core Design. (1996). Tomb Raider [PC Game]. Wimbledon: Eidos Interactive.

(Core Design, 1996)
Conference paper - published Coetzee, M. & Van Dyk, T.J. (2006). Engineers on the foreground: An integral approach to language acquisition. In D. Pistorius (Ed.), Engineering education for sustainable development. (pp. 215-222). Pretoria, South Africa: University of Pretoria.

Academic language proficiency develops over a period of time (Coetzee & Van Dyk, 2006).

In their study Coetzee and Van Dyk (2006) confirm that academic language proficiency develops over a period of time.

Conference paper - unpublished Coetzee, M. & Van Dyk, T.J. (2006, September). Engineers on the foreground: An integral approach to language acquisition. In D. Botha (Chair). The Third African Regional Conference on Engineering Education. Conference conducted at the University of Pretoria, South Africa: Pretoria.

Academic language proficiency develops over a period of time (Coetzee & Van Dyk, 2006).

Coetzee and Van Dyk (2006) found that academic language proficiency develops over a period of time.

Conference paper (electronic) Basole, R.C. (2007, 9-11 July). The emergence of the mobile enterprise: A value-driven perspective, in N. Archer, K. Hassanein & Y. Yuan (eds.), ICMB 2007 conference proceedings. Ontario, Canada. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society  [Electronic]. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ez.sun.ac.za/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=4278534

Mobile technology is more widely used in business (Basole, 2007).

Conference paper (Internet) - DOI

Basole, R.C. (2007, September). The emergence of the mobile enterprise: A value-driven perspective. Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Mobile Technologies. Ontario, CA. doi:10.xxx/xxxxx/xx

Mobile technology is more widely used in business (Basole, 2007).

 

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APA

Reference list In-text reference

Dance (live performance)

South African National Ballet. (2013, January 27). Giselle. Live performance in Maynardville Theatre, Cape Town.

(South African National Ballet, 2013)

Database: Journal (periodical) article

Petrić, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(3), 238-253. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475158507000379.

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

A number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified (Petrić, 2007).

Data sets (Internet)

Statistics South Africa. (2012). Census 2011: Statistical release [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P03014/P030142011.pdf

(Statistics South Africa, 2012)
Data sets (Print) Statistics South Africa. (2014). South African Census 2011 10% sample (Version 1.1) [Data file] Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. (Statistics South Africa, 2014)
Data sets (DOI) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2013). Treatment episode data set -- discharges (TEDS-D) -- concatenated, 2006 to 2009 [Data set]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013).
or
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013).

Diagram, Image, Figure (Book)

Donald, D., Lazarus, S. & Moolla, N. (2014). Educational psychology in social context: Ecosystemic applications in Southern Africa (5th Ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

 

Note:

Figures refers to diagrams, graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photographs.

Figure 1: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Adapted from Educational psychology in social context (p. 121), by D. Donald, S. Lazarus & N. Moolla, 2014, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Copyright 2014 by Oxford University Press.

Diagram, Image, Figure (Journal/Periodical) Cross, J.R. (2007). Developing your child's talent in the real world: Dealing with the Juxtaposition between ideal and actual gifted education. Gifted Child Today, 30(4), 50-55.

Figure 1: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Adapted from "Developing your child's talent in the real world: Dealing with the Juxtaposition between ideal and actual gifted education," by J.R. Cross, 2007, Gifted Child Today, 30(4), p. 54. Copyright 2007 by Sage Periodicals Inc.

Diagram, Image, Figure (Internet) McLeod, S.A. (2014). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html

Figure 1: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, In Simply Psychology, 2014, Retrieved October 28, 2015, from www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html. Copyright 2007 by Saul McLeod.

Dictionary entry, specific entry (Online dictionary, no author or editor)

Anxiety. (2012). In Merriam-Webster's collegiate(R) dictionary. Retrieved from http://ez.sun.ac.za/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com.ez.sun.ac.za/content/entry/mwcollegiate/anxiety/0

(Anxiety, 2012).

Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry

Phobia. (2007). In R. Allen (Ed.), The Penguin English Dictionary. London, UK: Penguin. Retrieved from http://ez.sun.ac.za/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com.ez.sun.ac.za/content/entry/penguineng/phobia/0

(Phobia, 2007).

Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry, author contribution

Bell, R.T. 1998. Psycholinguistic/cognitive approaches. In M. Baker (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 185-190). London, UK: Routledge.

(Bell, 1998).

Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry, electronic source

Van der Aalsvoort, G.M. (2010). Early social development and schooling. In P. Peterson, E. Baker & B. McGaw (Eds.), Internation Encyclopedia of Education, (3rd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 585-590). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ez.sun.ac.za/science/referenceworks/9780080448947

Van der Aalsvoort (2010) gives a broad overview of early social development and schooling.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Nell, I.A. (2011). Embodied leadership: Paradigm shifts in the leadership of a local URCSA congregation. Nederduitse Gereformeerde Teologiese Tydskrif, 52(1), 148-160, doi:10.5952/52-1-13 (no full-stop after DOI)
Note:
DOI by International DOI Foundation.

(Nell, 2011).

Discography (sound recordings)

Bach, J.S. (1981). Concerto 2 F-dur, BWV 1047 [Recorded by Concentus Musicus Wien]. On Brandenburgische Konzerte 2, 5, 6 auf Originalinstrumenten 1721.  [CD]. Hamburg: Telefunken.

 

Note:

Composer, A.A. [OR Writer, B.B.] (Year of copyright). Title of song OR work [Recorded by C.C. Artist if different from writer or composer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, Record, Cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from copyright date).

"Concerto 2 F-dur, BWV 1047" (Bach, 1981, track 5).

Dissertation, Doctoral (unpublished)

De Boer, A. (1992). Akademiese steungewing gebaseer op 'n behoeftebepaling vir die Technikon Noord-Transvaal. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Pretoria, Suid-Afrika: University of Pretoria.

Academic support is also the responsibility of a student service point (De Boer, 1992).

Dissertation, Doctoral (Institutional database)

Tallent, C.N. (2011). The referral process: Rural primary care physicians' perspectives on providing counseling referrals. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3466259).

(Tallent, 2011).

Dissertations, Theses (Institutional repository)

Ramuhala, M.G. (2010). Military intervention in Africa after the Cold War. (Unpublished Master's thesis, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4186


URL:
Use persistent links from Institutional Repository for theses and dissertations.

(Ramuhala, 2010)

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APA

Reference list In-text reference

E-book

Freud, S. (1953). The psychology of dream processes. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (vol. 5, pp. 509-621). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1900)

The untrustworthiness of our memory makes it difficult to interpret dreams (Freud, 1953).

E-book (via E-book reader)

McKeown, G. (2014). Essentialism: The disciplined pursuit of less [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

 

Note:

Use date of Kindle edition.

McKeown (2014) focuses on what must be done to increase success.

E-book (via E-book reader): DOI Jarvis, P. (2009). Learning to be a person in society [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.4323/9789203551202 Human experience underlies all human living and learning (Jarvis, 2009).

E-mail (Correspondence)

Personal communication such as e-mail provide not recoverable data and should not be included in the reference list, but only in the text. Give the initials and surname of the communicator and as far as possible, the exact date.

(APA, p. 179).

Permission is granted to use the pattern (personal communication, M. Joyce, January 13, 2001).

The chief executive of Intermountain Therapy, M. Joyce (personal communication, M. Joyce, January 13, 2001) gave his permission to use the pattern.

Electronic database: Journal article

Petrić, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master's theses. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(3), 238-253. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475158507000379

According to Petrić (2007), a number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified.

A number of rhetorical functions of citations could be identified (Petrić, 2007).

Electronic database: Newspaper article

Meryment, E. (2006, October 7). Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own. The Australian, p. 10. Retrieved from http://www.dowjones.com/factiva/

(APA, p. 200).

(Merryment, 2006).

Electronic source: Class notes

Johnson, K. (2007). Psychology 114 Class notes. [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from http://www.sun.ac.za/webstudies

Johnson (2007) is of the opinion that the basic principles of bahaviourism is still relevant.

Electronic source: Dictionary entry

Phobia. (2007). In R. Allen (Ed.), The Penguin English Dictionary. London, UK: Penguin. Retrieved from http://ez.sun.ac.za/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com.ez.sun.ac.za/content/entry/penguineng/phobia/0

Phobia (2007).

Electronic source: Dictionary (encyclopedia) entry, author contribution Van der Aalsvoort, G.M. (2010). Early social development and schooling. In P. Peterson, E. Baker & B. McGaw (Eds.), Internation Encyclopedia of Education, (3rd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 585-590). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ez.sun.ac.za/science/referenceworks/9780080448947 Van der Aalsvoort (2010) gives a broad overview of early social development and schooling.

Electronic source: Website

Herzog, H. (2015, April 13). Why people care more about pets than other humans. Wired. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/2015/04/people-care-pets-humans/

(APA, example 9, p. 200).

Pet owners thin of their dogs and cats as members of the family (Herzog, 2015)

Electronic source: Website (no author)

Trauma. (2012). In Merriam-Webster's collegiate(R) dictionary. Retrieved from http://ez.sun.ac.za/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com.ez.sun.ac.za/content/entry/mwcollegiate/trauma/0

(APA, example 30, p. 205).

(Trauma, 2012)

Encyclopedia entry

The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships. (2001). London: Prentice Hall.

A periscope can be defined as ... (The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships, 2001).

The New James's Encyclopedia for Fighting Ships (2001) defines a periscope as ...

Encyclopedia entry, author contribution

Fawcett, P. (1998). Linguistic approaches, in M. Baker (Ed.). Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 21-32). London, UK: Routledge.

(Fawcett, 1998).

Encyclopedia entry: volume number

Kinkeldey, O. (1957). Chinese music, in Yust (editor in chief), Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 5. Great Britain: Encyclopædia Britannica, Ltd. 574-575.

The foundation of the -system was a set of measured pitch pipes that were specifically calculated and charged with cosmological significance (Kinkeldey 1957).

Encyclopedia entry: volume number

Josselson, R. (2010) Narrative research. In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia or research design (Vol. 2, pp. 869-874). thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
(APA, p. 202).

The emphasis fall on human experience (Josselson, 2010).

Encyclopedia entry, electronic source

Sutton, R. A. (2010). ‘South-east Asia’, in Grove music online. Oxford Music Online [Electronic]. Retrieved from  http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/43742

Anderson Sutton (2010) gives a broad overview of South-East Asian tuning systems.

Encyclopedia entry, electronic source

Cherniss, C. (2004). Intelligence, emotional. In C. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Retrieved from http://ez.sun.ac.za/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com.ez.sun.ac.za/content/entry/estappliedpsyc/intelligence_emotional/0

(APA, p. 202).

Cherniss (2004) gives a broad overview of emotional intelligence.
Exhibition catalogue Alborough, A. (2002). Collective works [Exhibition catalogue]. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Sasol Art Museum. (Alborough, 2002).

 

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Journals

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Periodicals

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Reports

National Department of Health. (2015). Guidelines for maternity care in South Africa: A manual for clinics, community health centres and district hospitals (4th ed.). Pretoria, South Africa: National Department of Health.

(National Department of Health, 2015).

 

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